Hoekstra JA; Heuberger PSC; Haan BJ de; Eijkeren JCH van; Janssen PHM; Dekkers ALM; Kusse AAM; Hoek KW van den; Beurden AUCJ van; Egmond PM van; et al. (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-04-30)
This report discusses the reliability of environmental indicators obtained from calculations, used by RIVM in the composition of reports on the state of the environment. The considered calculation chain (for the Netherlands) starts at the emission of nitrogen compounds in 1992 and ends with forecasts of the nitrate concentration in untreated water in 2100. To this end the notion of reliability is specified in terms of a reliability factor and a confidence interval. The structure of the chain is depicted with flow diagrams. It is composed of measurement data, registration data, model operations and GIS operations. The primary data with respect to the nitrogen load are obtained from sources outside RIVM. They are based on registrated data, for example agricultural surveys. For the nitrogen emissions a reliability was postulated. The applied RIVM models are respectively OPS (atmospheric transport), DEADM (atmospheric deposition), NLOAD (nitrate leaching from agricultural soils), BOSMODEL (nitrate leaching from forest soils and heathland) and FLOPZ1 (groundwater streamlines and residence times). The measurement data are obtained from the National Monitoring Networks for Air Quality (LML, wind velocities and NOy concentrations) and Groundwater Quality (LMG, nitrate concentration in deep groundwater). Applying uncertainty analyses on models and using statistical techniques, uncertainties in the various indicators are determined, where uncertainties are propagated through the chain. The reliability of the indicators, as reported for 1992, is calculated on the basis of the resulting uncertainties. Most of the calculations are performed on three different scales, 5 x 5 km blocks, Acidification Areas (20 areas in the Netherlands) and on national scale. The reliability of nitrate concentration in untreated water is assessed for two different drinking water stations. Results of the project are presented in the form of tables and graphics, such as histograms and geographical plots of indicators and reliability factors. Table 7.1 on page 73 summarizes the reliability of the investigated indicators. A subsequent goal of this report is to contribute to a (discussion about a) generally applicable method to determine the reliability in the calculation of environmental indicators.
Rood GA; Wilde PGM de; Aalbers TG (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-03-31)
Within the framework of the Terms of Reference Plan for normalization commission 390011 on materials', the RIVM has developed a set of leaching tests for various organic compounds. In this study the emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) of several materials were determined using the draft column and serial batch test for PAH. On the basis of follow-up studies PAH adsorption was seen to occur on the equipment used for the leaching tests and furthermore this adsorption was shown to be minimalized through several adaptations. When compared with the adapted test method, this method results in lower PAH emissions. Column and serial batch tests were carried out using the following materials: three kinds of soil containing different PAH concentrations, demolition waste, concrete waste, sieve sand, two asphalt samples containing different tar concentrations, municipal incinerator bottom ash, blasting sand, fly-ash (industrial) and dredging sludge. The emissions from the total of 10 PAH from these materials were usually between about 1 and 15 mug/kg. Only the emissions from the heavily contaminated soil and the asphalt with tar emission were higher (165 and 17540 mug/kg respectively). The low molecular PAH are most soluble in water, because of this these PAH emissions were higher than those of the high molecular PAH. The mean PAH concentration in the column test was indicatively compared with limits for water ; from this it appeared that some PAH concentrations in the eluate of the asphalt with tar and of the heavily contaminated soil were higher than the (former) B-value for groundwater. A lower pH and reduction of the particle size to smaller than 125 mum had little influence on the PAH emissions, therefore it was concluded that the current inorganic components for leaching' was not useful in determining the driving force behind PAH leaching. In this study PAH emissions from several materials were determined. For standard-setting research is still needed into the leaching mechanism of PAH and the relation between laboratory experiments and practice.
Dekker PM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-07-31)
Within the framework of the study to dredging and processing technics for sanitation of polluted water bottoms, the leachability of organic compounds and metals has been investigated from sludge. The CEN-test, somewhat altered, was carried out in a laboratory for the determination of the leachability. First the results are used to work out the alteration of leaching behaviour as a result from dredging and second as a result from processing the sludge.
Aalbers ThG; Derksen GB (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-10-31)
This report describes: 1. The mathematical, statistical argumentation of the testing of batches for the enforcement check, 2. an estimation of the total variance of the batch as a result of the specific variance of the batch (heterogeneousness) and the measurement error, 3. Calculation of the rejection value, 4. The effect of the choices on the acceptance chance and on the height of the rejection value, 5. The effect of the testing method on: - the protection of the soil - the re-usability of construction materials - the costs of the testing 6. Proposal for a testing procedure.
Amstel AR van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-09-30)
This report was written at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment to comply with the European Unions Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism (Council Decision 93/389/EEC). The member states of the European Community have adopted the objective of stabilising CO2 emissions in the Community as a whole by 2000 at 1990 levels. The monitoring mechanism provides a means whereby the Commission can monitor progress towards this target on the basis of annual emission inventories supplied by the member states and national programmes which set out emission trajectories and policy measures to limit CO2 or to increase sinks. It also requires member states to report inventories of other greenhouse gases. Under the monitoring mechanism each member state reports its greenhouse gas emissions by the 31st of July each year. By each reporting deadline member states should supply inventories based on provisional data for the previous year and final data for the year previous to that. The first submission of provisional inventories in 1995 should also include data for the base year 1990. A review will be carried out under the responsibility of the European Commission. This report is also written to comply with the obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The inventory is compatible with the reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It contains a greenhouse gas emissions inventory for the years 1993 and 1994, together with a short description of how the internationally adopted IPCC Guidelines have been applied in the Netherlands. Temperature corrected carbon dioxide emissions in 1993 and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide were slightly higher than 1990. A dip in the economic development especially in the chemical industry sector prevented a further growth in emissions. Provisional data for 1994 suggest a significant increase in carbon dioxide emissions due to the prosperous economic developments. Energy efficiency improvements prevented an even further growth in emissions.
Olivier JGJ (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-07-31)
An estimate was made of present global emissions from air traffic using statistical information on fuel consumption, aircraft types and applying emission factors for various compounds. To generate scenarios for future emissions from air traffic, assumptions were used regarding the development of the volume of air traffic, of specific fuel consumption and of the emission factors. In addition, some policy alternatives were calculated in which a number of measures were implemented to reduce aircraft emissions. In co-operation with the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) scenarios of the development of the volume of global air traffic have been constructed, using economic growth figures from three scenarios defined by the Dutch Central Planning Bureau (CPB), labelled 'European Renaissance' (ER), 'Global Shift' (GS) and 'Balanced Growth' (BG). Combined with assumptions on the development of specific fuel consumption and on the emission factors global emission scenarios for air traffic were constructed for the years 2003 en 2015. Current trends of global emissions of greenhouse gases from air traffic show for the period 1990-2015 a substantial autonomous growth of about 140-190% for NOx and between 180-250% for other compounds. Global totals appear to be rather insensible with regard to the economic scenarios used for the projections. Related to other energy-related emissions, the growth will be larger since air traffic is expected to grow faster than other energy consumption. Furthermore, indications are given of the maximum potential of policy measures to reduce aircraft emissions globally. Depending on the compound, emissions could be reduced substantially in 2015 (typically 25% compared with the reference scenarios), if strong technological measures would be implemented to a high degree (without retrofits of the current fleet). The cumulative effect of integrated (technical, operational or economic) control policies can be substantial, in particular with regard to NOx emissions. The results indicate that a substantial limitation - in some cases even a reduction in absolute figures - of the uncontrolled growth of emissions may be achieved, provided that the assumed strong technological development would indeed occur and were implemented to a high degree, and were combined with other (operational and economic) policy measures. The calculated future global emissions were spatially distributed in three dimensions using the 3D air traffic database of Warren Spring Laboratory (WSL) (now: AEA, Harwell) and emission factors defined by WSL and the Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR). The data from this database were aggregated and included as Version 1 of the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) of RIVM/TNO. Subsequently, the EDGAR functionality was used to generate 3-dimensional distributions of emissions for the years 2003 and 2015. Combined with time profiles, which were compiled from data provided by McDonnell-Douglas, these 3D emissions scenarios were used for atmospheric-chemical research. The cruising altitude per aircraft type and the seasonal variation were assumed to stay constant in time. This study combines the results of an air traffic projection model with a gridded air traffic emissions database to generate for future years three-dimensional spatial distributions of aircraft emissions using well recognized and documented reference scenarios, thus allowing a comprehensive assessment of the atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions relative to other sources. This complements the aggregated comparison of global emissions from aircraft and other sources, such as presented in this report, and provides pivotal information for environmental assessments of the impact of the emissions by atmospheric models.
Wesselink LG (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-07-31)
As part of the C.R.O.W-project "Leaching behaviour of secondary building materials in road constructions, under laboratory and field conditions" we investigated leaching history of chemical components from two road construction sites. The sites were situated at Coloradoweg and Vondelingenweg, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The geo-chemical model ECOSAT was used to investigate rate and mechanism of leaching from the secondary building materials as well as binding of chemical components in the soil layer beneath. At location Coloradoweg (asphalt cover) leaching from the road construction was controlled by diffusion processes. Concentration profiles in the soil layer underneath the secondary building material were a good measure of the cumulative leaching from the road construction during the past 10 years. At location Vondelingenweg leaching was dominated by convection processes. Although substantial leaching of heavy metals from the road construction occurred, transport through the underlying soil layer was limited due to soil-metal binding processes.
Cornelissen AAJ; Otte PF (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-03-31)
This report presents the results of an investigation on the composition of (residual) household waste of the Netherlands, collected from eleven neighbourhoods. The waste from these areas offers a rather accurate picture of the waste collected nationwide. The report gives detailed information about 14 main components, numerous subcomponents, the percentage of packaging materials and batteries in household waste. The main components in (residual) household waste are: Bio-waste and undefined residual waste (39,8%); paper and cardboard (27,1%) ; plastics (8,9%) ; glass (4,2%) and ferrous metals ( 4,1%).
Hanemaayer AH; Joosten JM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-06-30)
Article 18 of the Dutch Packaging Covenant mentions a monitoring system that will have to be set up to check on the progress made in realizing the objectives laid down in this Covenant. The RIVM's Laboratory for Waste Materials and Emissions was asked to carry out the output analyses as a part of this monitoring system for packaging materials.This report presents the results of the output analyses for 1994. It provides information on the amount, composition and destination of the packaging waste from the different categories (households, commercial and industrial sector) in 1994, with the accuracy of the data for the different categories indicated. The results for 1994 are compared with those from previous years (1986, 1991, 1992 and 1993). The amount of packaging waste originating in households (recycling excluded) has been measured for the last twenty years by means of sorting analyses. Packaging waste from the commercial and industrial sector for 1992 - 1994 was measured through the use of questionnaires ; other methods were used for previous years.Taking into account the accuracy of the data for the different years, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Between 1993 and 1994 the total amount of packaging waste did not increase. (2) From 1986 till 1994 the total amount of packaging waste increased by approximately 15 percent. In 1986 the amount of glass in the deposit system rejected by industry was included. Comparing 1986 with 1993 and excluding the rejected glass for 1986, the total amount of packaging waste was seen to increase by approximately 18 percent. (3) For 1994 an interim target was mentioned in the Dutch Packaging Covenant, implying that the total amount of packaging waste in 1994 should not be higher than in 1991. Even when a possible overestimation for 1991 is taken into account, it is possible to conclude that the total amount of packaging waste did not increase between 1991 and 1994.
Otte PF (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-07-31)
This report presents the results of sorting analyses of paper and cardboard waste, collected house-to-house or derived from communal paper containers. Analyses took place in early 1995 in the framework of activities defined in an agreement between the Dutch Government and the packaging industry, the so called Covenant for Packaging. Amongst others, the results of these analyses will be used to evaluate and examine the effects of the Covenant during the year 1994. Sorting analyses proved that, in separate collected paper and cardboard waste, the average amount of used packagings is 20.9 %. The impurity, defined as found non-paper or non-cardboard waste, was 0.9 % average.
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