Verschoor AJ; Boesten JJTT; Leistra M; Linden AMA van der; Linders JBHJ; Pol JW (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-03-04)
The report gives recommendations for the interpretation of lysimeter, field and simulation studies in a more consistent and objective way. Expert judgement has been converted as much as possible in quantitative rules for evaluation. The lysimeter or field study is to be computer-simulated as good as possible and the result is compared with measured leaching. The relative difference, here defined as the simulation error, is considered to be the endpoint of the evaluation of a lysimeter or field study. The simulation will be used as a correction for the pesticide leaching computed for a scenario relevant for the registration of the pesticide.
Fraters B; Eerdt MM van; Hoop DW de; Latour P; Olsthoorn CSM; Swertz OC; Verstraten F; Willens WJ (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-08-01)
This overview documents agricultural practice, and groundwater and surface water quality, in the Netherlands, mainly for the period from 1992 to 1997. It is intended to provide the Dutch authorities with basic information for reporting on the results of monitoring programmes to asses the effectiveness of the Dutch Action programme. A start was made in the 1992-1997 reporting period with the implementation of the Code of Good Practice in the Netherlands. In part, this concerned accentuation of measures taken in the 1987-1992 period. Nitrogen present in agriculture via chemical fertilisers and manure decreased slightly in 1992-1997. The nitrogen surplus in agriculture has not changed as a result of lower crop yields. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater under agricultural land showed no trend in the reporting period, in which fluctuations in precipitation surplus were accounted for. The nitrate concentration in groundwater and the frequency of exceeding the European reference value not only depends on human activities but also on soil type, the local hydrological conditions and sampling depths. The annual average nitrate concentrations in fresh surface waters influenced by agriculture and other fresh waters decreased in the reporting period. Maximum concentrations showed, on the contrary, an increase. The reason for this is unknown. Nitrate concentrations at monitoring locations in marine waters decreased or did not change. This holds for both average and maximum concentrations. Eutrophication expressed as the concentration of chorophyll-a showed no clear trend in both fresh and marine surface waters in the 1992-1997 period. If the period before 1992 is taken into account (from 1986 onwards), a decrease in eutrophication is observed in fresh waters. It is too early to determine effects of the Dutch Action programme, implemented in 1996; this applies especially to nitrate concentrations in surface and groundwater.
Geurs KT; Ritsema van Eck JR (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-06-28)
This reports serves as a background report for the analysis conducted for the evaluation of the Fifth Spatial Planning Programme - Part 1, policy proposals - by the RIVM. This report describes the impacts of land-use scenarios on passenger mobility, accessibility en environmental impacts of transport. The main conclusions are that the further urbanisation of the existing Randstad, combined with investments in public transport, i.e. the introduction of high-speed rail or Maglev technology between the major cities of the Randstad area, will result in a significant increase in public transport use, but the impact on the total volume of car traffic is rather small. Job accessibility by public transport will increase strongly, but (even with high-speed rail transport), public transport will not able to compete fully with the car mode. Furthermore, the Randstad area is not likely to function as one coherent metropolitan system as the result of the proposed public transport investments only.
Peijnenburg WJGM; Jager DT; Posthuma L; Sijm DTHM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-03-30)
Metals are naturally occurring compounds and some of them are essential for survival of organisms. These aspects are directly related to the effects of metals in ecosystems, and should explicitly be taken into account in risk assessment procedures for metals that usually operate through total concentrations. Thereupon, the aspect of bioavailability has insufficiently been taken into account in current methodologies for risk assessment. Recently, the insight has increased in the chemical and biological processes that jointly deter-mine the availability of metals for the biota that comprise the eco-systems. In this report a review is given of the current scientific possibilities for taking differences in bioavailability of heavy metals into account in future risk assessment and standard setting. It is concluded that there are indeed such possibilities. Currently, however, lack of suited data and insights hinder the development of a modified system for risk assessment and standard setting that is 'better' capable of predicting actual effects in soil ecosystems than current methodologies. A general concept is being presented that might serve as a basis for the modified system. Within the concept it is assumed that adverse effects will occur only when a species-, soil- and metal-specific critical value is exceeded. A new system of risk assessment could be based upon two sets of toxicity data: one data-set for species that are exposed via the pore water, and one set for species for which uptake via the solid phase is the dominant uptake route. Nevertheless, both risk assessment and standard setting could in the new system still primarily be based upon total metal concentrations in the soil solid phase. At present, there appear to be insufficient data and well-defined conceptual frameworks to allow for implementation of a modified system. In the report a prioritization of additional research needs is therefore included.
Hoekstra JA; Heuberger PSC; Haan BJ de; Eijkeren JCH van; Janssen PHM; Dekkers ALM; Kusse AAM; Hoek KW van den; Beurden AUCJ van; Egmond PM van; et al. (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-04-30)
This report discusses the reliability of environmental indicators obtained from calculations, used by RIVM in the composition of reports on the state of the environment. The considered calculation chain (for the Netherlands) starts at the emission of nitrogen compounds in 1992 and ends with forecasts of the nitrate concentration in untreated water in 2100. To this end the notion of reliability is specified in terms of a reliability factor and a confidence interval. The structure of the chain is depicted with flow diagrams. It is composed of measurement data, registration data, model operations and GIS operations. The primary data with respect to the nitrogen load are obtained from sources outside RIVM. They are based on registrated data, for example agricultural surveys. For the nitrogen emissions a reliability was postulated. The applied RIVM models are respectively OPS (atmospheric transport), DEADM (atmospheric deposition), NLOAD (nitrate leaching from agricultural soils), BOSMODEL (nitrate leaching from forest soils and heathland) and FLOPZ1 (groundwater streamlines and residence times). The measurement data are obtained from the National Monitoring Networks for Air Quality (LML, wind velocities and NOy concentrations) and Groundwater Quality (LMG, nitrate concentration in deep groundwater). Applying uncertainty analyses on models and using statistical techniques, uncertainties in the various indicators are determined, where uncertainties are propagated through the chain. The reliability of the indicators, as reported for 1992, is calculated on the basis of the resulting uncertainties. Most of the calculations are performed on three different scales, 5 x 5 km blocks, Acidification Areas (20 areas in the Netherlands) and on national scale. The reliability of nitrate concentration in untreated water is assessed for two different drinking water stations. Results of the project are presented in the form of tables and graphics, such as histograms and geographical plots of indicators and reliability factors. Table 7.1 on page 73 summarizes the reliability of the investigated indicators. A subsequent goal of this report is to contribute to a (discussion about a) generally applicable method to determine the reliability in the calculation of environmental indicators.
Fraters B; Boumans LJM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-12-31)
The technical background to supporting the policy decisions on allocating phosphate-saturated soils and tackling the problems which these soils cause are presented here. Since 1987 the Dutch government has taken several steps to diminishing the problem of phosphate-saturated soils.New legislation will become available in 1998 for regulating the use of nutrients. The Ministries of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries (LNV) and of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) are planning to issue a general administrative order (GAO) to regulate phosphate use on phosphate-saturated soils. Several choices have to be made beforehand (1) Should the GAO cover the total agricultural area or should it be limited to, for example, the areas with known high historical loads? (2) What method should be used to identify phosphate-saturated soils? (3) Should management of all phosphate-saturated soils be restricted by the GAO or only the most polluted ones? (4) What level of net phosphorus export from the fields for which the GAO prescribes management restrictions should be implemented? Alternative answers to each of these questions have been formulated, with the pro's and cons for each given. Answers from the perspective of the GAO regulating farm management pertain to the national scale. The alternatives described can also be used for regulation limited to selected areas, such as those for nature conservation. In this case, methods described here can be used to select fields within the selected areas. In conclusion, several suggestions for future research are given, such as focusing on the effects in the long and medium term of soil phosphorus depletion on both agriculture and the environment. Although there are still questions to be answered, it has been made clear that the phosphorus status of most soils in the Netherlands at the moment is unnecessarily high from both the agricultural (plant production) and the environmental viewpoints.
Latour JB; Staritsky IG; Alkemade JRM; Wiertz J (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-09-30)
The Natureplanner is essentially a computer system to predict the effects of environmental and spatial scenarios on nature for national and regional policy. It supports further the decisions on setting environmental standards, on detection of the dominant stress factor and the choice between area specific or general or mitigation measures and the costs. The smallest spatial resolution is 250*250 m. The dominant stress factor will be the most cost effective target for policy making; in some areas this will be desiccation and in others it may be eutrophication caused by deposition of NH3 from agriculture. The system has functions for viewing databases and maps of species distribution, soil or environmental scenario's. It is possible to choose a new vegetation structure in certain grid cells and than to compute the probability of occurrence of species under the given environmental conditions of soil, groundwater and acid or N-deposition. Another important application of the Nature Planner on a more regional scale is the computation of the specific critical N-load for a nature reserve. Further development is going on in close co-operation with other research institutes and some provinces with respect to: aquatic ecosystems, ecotoxicological aspects, succession/management practices, salinity, climate, and a separate module for effects of environmental changes and landscape fragmentation on birds and other fauna.
Beck JP; Bree L van; Esbroek MLP van; Freijer JI; Hinsberg A van; Marra M; Velze K van; Vissenberg HA; Pul WAJ van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-09-07)
This report supports the evaluation of the Dutch targets for acidification which was announced in the 3th National Environmental Policy Plan (NMP3). The relation between emissions, environmental quality and health risks was studied using a number of emissions variants. The calculations show that the environmental quality in 2010 improves compared to the current situation. Despite this major bottlenecks remain. The deposition target for 2010 from the NMP3 will not be realized. During the next decade the percentage of hectares of ecosystems unprotected for deposition of potential acid and nitrogen is expected to be larger than 75%. Only realization of the NMP3 emission targets, with proportional reductions in other countries, provides achievement of the NMP3 targets for deposition. The long-term ozone target value for the protection of human health and vegetation will not be met in 2010. However, the 2010 limit values will possibly be met. The number of hospital admissions associated with ozone is expected to grow if one includes the increase of the ageing population. The policy on reduction of acidifying compounds will not sufficiently reduce the ambient concentration of particulate matter to comply with the 2010 indicative limit values for PM. Some exceedances of the NO2 annual limit value are calculated for 2010.
Lijzen JPA; Ekelenkamp A (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-04-30)
The aim of this study was to support the policy on preventive soil protection with information on the diffuse (non-local) emissions to soil and the influence on future soil quality. This study is related to inventories on (potential) sources of local soil pollution (e.g. industrial areas, landfills, oil-storage tanks, public sewerage systems, pipelines, roads and motorways, railways etc.). The diffuse sources included in this study are: atmospheric deposition, manure, fertilizer, pesticides, purifying sludge, compost, dredging sludge, corrosion of metals, leaching of preserved wood and hunting. The study focused on heavy metals, some pesticides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and oil(products). A survey was made on present and future soil quality. Four types of land use were distinguished: nature conservation areas/forest, agricultural land, infrastructural and urban areas. Conclusions have been made on (1) the contribution of the different sources to the total emissions to the soil and on (2) the expected exceedance of pollutant target values in soil affected by emissions. Important sources of non-local emissions to soil are atmospheric deposition, manure, fertilizer, dredging sludge, corrosion and leaching of impregnated wood. To guard the soil quality in the future, the emissions of cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, chromium, pesticides, trichloroethylene, chlorinated phenols and PAHs will have to decrease. The present emissions of arsenic, endosulfan, HCB, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and benzene to soil are probably acceptable. For many other substances little is known about the influence of the present load on future soil quality. Therefore more calculations to estimate the development of soil quality are recommended. Also actualization and differentiation of the emission data needs more attention.
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