Rambali B; Andel I van; Schenk E; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Stevenson H; Vleeming W (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2003-05-07)
In this report the effect of these compounds on the addiction to cigarette smoking was assessed, using currently available information in the literature on psychoactive compounds of cocoa. The investigated psychoactive cocoa compounds were theobromine, caffeine, serotonin, histamine, tryptophan, tryptamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, octopamine and anandamide. The general conclusion is that the level of these compounds in added cocoa in cigarettes is not sufficient to increase the addiction to cigarette smoking.
Andel I van; Rambali AB; Amsterdam JGC van; Wolterink G; Aerts LAGJM van; Vleeming W (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2003-07-15)
This report discusses the current knowledge on nicotine dependence, devoting a special chapter to smoking among youths, given that most smoking careers start in adolescence. The transition period, in which youths go from elementary to high school (ages 13-14), showes to be particularly risky for smoking initiation. The earlier youths start smoking, the more likely they will become dependent, and the more likely they will be heavier cigarette smokers in adult life. Since nicotine seems to be able to cause addiction in a short period of time, the aim should be to prevent children experimenting with cigarettes. Studies have shown that heavy smokers experience less aversive effects during their first smoke than light smokers. 'Light' cigarettes and flavour-enhancing additives could reduce aversive effects during smoking compared to regular cigarettes without such additives. Therefore, prohibiting the use of 'light' cigarettes and the use of flavour-enhancing additives could prevent adolescents from trying a second cigarette and ultimately contribute to preventing addiction among youths.
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