Swartjes FA; Dirven-van Breemen EM; Otte PF; Beelen P van; Rikken MGJ; Tuinstra J; Spijker J; Lijzen JPA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2007-08-16)
RIVM has developed an approach which allows human health risks of vegetable consumption from contaminated sites to be assessed. A tiered approach was used to guarantee the scientific basis and efficient use in practice. The underlying principle is: simple when possible and complex when necessary. If the risk can be eliminated in an early step, the assessment can be stopped. If not, assessment continues in the next tier, becoming more site-specific with each tier. This results in a more realistic, but also more time-consuming, assessment. The approach consists of four tiers that are laid out as follows. Tier 0, which precedes the calculation and measurement tiers, investigates the possibilities for experiencing adverse human health effects due to vegetable consumption. Subsequently, the soil concentrations of pollutants are measured in Tier 1 and compared with so-called Critical soil concentrations (for which vegetable consumption from contaminated sites is safe). Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed assessment of the site-specific risks for human health on the basis of calculation. Finally, Tier 3 shows a standardized measurement protocol. This protocol offers guidance and advice on the type and amount of crops that can be sampled in the field, thereby providing an indication for human health risks.
Dirven-van Breemen EM; Lijzen JPA; Otte PF; Vlaardingen P van; Spijker J; Verbruggen EMJ; Swartjes FA; Groenenberg JE; Rutgers M (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2007-08-02)
The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment has derived Reference Values for maximum permissible soil pollution. The Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) used these values as a basis for the maximum values for soil pollution. The ministry set these values down according to a proposal for an update of soil policy and the Soil Protection Act in 2003. Reference values refer to allowed concentrations of pollutants in soil, depending on the land use. The soil concentrations of pollutants with values below these concentrations meet all the requirements. The risks for humans, the ecosystem and agriculture were analyzed as critical factors, with risk thresholds derived for different types of land use, such as playgrounds, gardens, and agricultural and nature areas. Furthermore, an accelerated procedure was used to compile a complete list of reference values in 2006. The RIVM used state-of-the-art knowledge to complete the 'old' knowledge for information on toxicity of substances; figures were used where knowledge gaps occurred. A recommendation for the coming years is to address resulting inconsistencies in the list of reference values.
Otte PF; Lijzen JPA; Mennen MG; Spijker J (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2007-07-20)
Soils contaminated with volatile substances can affect the air quality in buildings located in the vicinity of these substances. This guidance describes measurement techniques and the corresponding risk assessment of volatile substances in air caused by soil pollution. The results form the basis for soil decision-making on remediation by the local authorities. The guidance describes in seven steps how health risks from volatile substances in contaminated soil can be assessed using air measurements in and around the house. Possible areas for taking measurements are the living room, the area under the ground floor and in the soil itself. For this, an effective study strategy is important. Before risk assessors begin measuring, they need to first determine whether it is worthwhile. Subsequently, they need to determine target and pre-condition prior to proceeding with measurement. This method is more effective than first measuring and subsequently adjusting target and pre-conditions. The report provides general instructions for the interpretation of obtained data. This guidance is not meant as a rigid protocol but as an aid for all who have to carry out the measurements and interpret results. Furthermore, the guidance can help those who have to decide about taking remedial measures based on risk assessment.
Export search results
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different
formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format.
By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items.
To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export.
The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export.
After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format.