The effects on the homes' indoor environment of sound insulation and changed ventilation behaviour of the residents due to noise annoyance from road- and air traffic, was assessed in 92 homes in the vicinity of Schiphol Airport. Air concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5), soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic hydrocarbons were measured in the living room. In collected house-dust from the livingroom floor the content of endotoxins (from gram-negative bacteria), EPS(pen/asp) (from moulds), beta(1,3)glucane (from moulds) and house dust mite allergen (Der p 1) were measured. No statical significant differences in measured levels were found between homes with and homes without sound insulation. In addition, no statical significant differences in levels were found between homes of residents who had changed their ventilation behaviour and houses of residents who did not change. It is concluded that in the houses that were investigated, sound insulation or changed ventilation behaviour due to noise annoyance from road- and air traffic, did not result in different levels of contaminants in indoor air or house dust.
Beck JP; van Bree L; Esbroek MLP; Freijer JI; van Hinsberg A; Marra M; van Velze K; Vissenberg HA; van Pul WAJ(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-09-07)
This report supports the evaluation of the Dutch targets for acidification which was announced in the 3th National Environmental Policy Plan (NMP3). The relation between emissions, environmental quality and health risks was studied using a number of emissions variants. The calculations show that the environmental quality in 2010 improves compared to the current situation. Despite this major bottlenecks remain. The deposition target for 2010 from the NMP3 will not be realized. During the next decade the percentage of hectares of ecosystems unprotected for deposition of potential acid and nitrogen is expected to be larger than 75%. Only realization of the NMP3 emission targets, with proportional reductions in other countries, provides achievement of the NMP3 targets for deposition. The long-term ozone target value for the protection of human health and vegetation will not be met in 2010. However, the 2010 limit values will possibly be met. The number of hospital admissions associated with ozone is expected to grow if one includes the increase of the ageing population. The policy on reduction of acidifying compounds will not sufficiently reduce the ambient concentration of particulate matter to comply with the 2010 indicative limit values for PM. Some exceedances of the NO2 annual limit value are calculated for 2010.<br>
This report provides a survey of past and present integrated models that have been used for the generation and analysis of global scenarios. It examines the usefulness of the models for scenario studies on environmentally sustainable development. It does so by evaluating the models in terms of inter alia horizontal integration, vertical integration, and regional specificity. No single model is found to be 'ideal', but a judicious combination of currently existing models with narrative storylines can provide the basis for the development of global scenarios of environmentally sustainable development.
Verhagen H; van den Brink RMM; Duvoort GL; Meijer PJ(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-05-18)
The report presents the results of the monitoring programme on priority waste streams in the Netherlands for the year 1999. This programme is carried out by RIVM by order of the Directorate of Chemicals, Waste and Radiation Protection of the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. Basic data and additional information on the quantities, specified into origin and method of disposal, as well as the composition, are presented in a standard format for 27 priority waste streams. The sources of information and procedures used to determine the data are also explained.<br>
Achterberg PW; Kramers PGN(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-04-09)
Over the last four decades perinatal and infant mortality rates have decreased strongly in all countries of the European Union (EU). The declining trend for the Netherlands, however, has recently levelled off more strongly than for other EU countries and is stronger for perinatal than for infant mortality. Two questions arose: (1) Which risk factors can explain the unfavourable Dutch trends? And (2) How may the present situation be improved? With respect to the first question, four risk factors for perinatal mortality were specifically investigated: age of mother at birth (older and teenage mothers having increased risks), ethnic origin of the mother (most often increased risks), multiple births (increased risks for twins, even higher for larger (3 or more) multiplets) and smoking during pregnancy (increased risk for low birth weight and perinatal mortality). Over the past 25 years the percentage of Dutch children born with an older (35+) mother has increased from 5 to 20%. The average age of Dutch mothers at birth of their first child has increased simultaneously and faster than elsewhere and it is now the highest in the world. In the same period the number of children born to mothers with an ethnic origin has also increased from about 5 to 20 %. Several large Dutch minority groups (Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinam) have increased risks for perinatal mortality. Recently, immigrants and refugees from Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa have added to these groups with increased risks. Although accurate data are lacking, it is likely that this increase has been larger in the Netherlands than in several other EU countries. The number of Dutch children born as (one of) a multiplet rose from 2 % in 1980 to 3.5 % in 2000. Not only the increasing age of the mother, but also the concurrent increase in infertility and its treatments (hormonal and/or IVF) are responsible for the rise in multiplets. The Dutch multiple birthrate is now among the highest in Europe, although not for 'higher' mutliplets. Dutch women in the fertile age are among the most frequent smokers in the EU and Dutch women also are still smoking relatively much during pregnancy (20 %). The pattern of these risk factors could at least partly explain the relatively unfavourable development of the Dutch perinatal mortality rates. Nevertheless, these mortality rates have continued to decrease and other, positive, factors must have been at work as well. These would include improvements in living conditions and healthy lifestyle as well as improvements in prevention, healthcare and medical technology. The counterpart of the declining perinatal mortality rate, however, is the increased number of children that survive with a neurologic or cognitive disability. Dutch health care historically involves a high percentage of homebirths and the Dutch system is also known for its relatively low medical intervention rates. Comparative studies show that the performance of the Dutch system of perinatal care is as good as other European systems. In all countries, however, there remains a certain amount of probably or potentially avoidable perinatal mortality (6, respectively 19 % for the Netherlands). Taking into account the observed pattern and trends in risk factors as well as the relevant aspects of health care and prevention this report points at health policy options to improve health care and prevention during pregnancy and around birth in the Netherlands. Focusing on a multicultural approach to prevention and health care for pregnant women, more attention to quitting smoking during pregnancy, more effective screening before birth and improving the national information collection in this area are major opportunities for Dutch health policy.<br>
In medical practice products containing cultured cells have emerged. These products could be labelled Tissue Engineered Medical Products (TEMPs). A literature review covering the past ten years was carried out to collect information useful for the assessment of risks associated with these products and to provide suggestions on developing regulatory strategies. The information was structured according to the EN-ISO 14971 standard for risk management. Regulations and standards for other medical products, such as medicinal products, blood and blood products and medical devices were discussed as to their applicability for TEMPs. Products that contain cells of animal origin were excluded. In view of the large amount of research currently being carried out, the number of available products is expected to increase in the coming years. Due to the novelty of TEMPs, their risks have not been clearly identified yet. Experiences with other medical products indicate the most important risks as being related to transmission of disease, bio-compatibility and efficacy. All parties involved in the life cycle of TEMPs will take decisions on the acceptability of risks. These decisions are preferably based on pre-defined standards. Although these are not available for TEMPs at the moment, they can be expected in the (near) future. Most measures for risk control included in current regulations and standards covering products like medicinal products, blood and products and medical devices were found to be applicable in generic form to TEMPs. Control measures for TEMPs should be combined into a regulatory framework which is complementary to current European regulation on medical products and attuned to it.
Heuberger PSC; Aben JMM; van Pul WAJ; van Dam JD(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-11-30)
Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen is one of the most important threats to nature areas in the Netherlands. At a large scale the critical loads for nitrogen are exceeded to a great extend. Ammonia emissions from agricultural activities contribute over 50% to the nitrogen deposition in the Netherlands. For nature areas, this contribution can be even higher because agricultural areas are often situated close to nature areas. This offers special opportunities for (sub) national policy makers to reduce the large nitrogen loads at a local scale by relocating ammonia emissions. In this study the ammonia emissions are relocated in such a way that nature areas are maximally protected given a national emission ceiling. This is carried out by minimising the exceedances of the critical loads for nitrogen for the nature areas and taken into account the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen from other sources and countries. This optimisation is carried out at a spatial scale of 1x1 km2. For the ammonia emissions for 2010 (93 kton) an optimisation of the distribution of the emissions leads to a reduction in the accumulated exceedances of about 30-40%. The percentages of the nature areas that is protected against the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen increases from 30% to 40-50%. An outlook for 2030 shows that the reductions in the accumulated exceedances are 40-60% but that the percentage of protection is increased by only a few percent. The results are highly dependent on the assumptions made about the development of the agricultural practice. The effect of these relocations is used in the evaluation on whether local measures are effective compared to generic measures in reducing agricultural ammonia emissions.<br>
Viet AL; van Gils HWV; van den Hof S; Elvers LH; Seidell JC; van den Berg J; van Veldhuizen H(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-09-21)
Risk Factors and Health in the Netherlands, a survey on Municipal Health Services. The main aim of the project was to monitor risk factors or determinants of chronic and infectious disease in the general population. Also studied were the differences with respect to many background- and health- related variables between participants interviewed at home and those taking the physical examination. Random sampling by the CBS led to home interviews by trained interviewers of individuals from the age of 0 who were willing to cooperate in the survey. The interview consisted of items related to aspects of health status and use of medicines/medical devices. Questions on lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking and vaccination) were included. At the end of the interview, participants were asked for permission to be approached for an additional health examination. Participants older than 12 years were asked to visit the nearest community or municipal health service (GGD). Of the participant, 60.9% agreed to participate in the additional health examination. A short physical examination was performed at the health centre. Blood samples were taken and blood pressure measured, as well as height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences. In addition, the 'joint-function test' was performed and an additional questionnaire was distributed. Of the people interviewed, 30.0% had visited the community or municipal health centre. The participants undergoing the physical examination were representative of the Dutch population, in that there were no major differences with respect to most of the background- and health-related variables between participants interviewed at home and those taking the physical examination. The prevalence of hypertension was 19% in men and 16% in women. The prevalence of overweight was higher for the women than for the men (12 % versus 9%). The estimation of overweight was different for length and weight (reported was higher than measured), clearly seen especially among the women. On the basis of non-fasting glucose measurements, 1.6% of the group had a high glucose level.<br>
This report gives the extended summary of the project 'The impact of climate change on the river Rhine and the implications for water management in the Netherlands', carried out within the framework of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) - phase 2. This report is also a product of the IRMA-SPONGE project nr. 3/NL/1/164 / 99 15 183 0. The project contributes to the CHR- research on the Rhine basin. The institutes that collaborated in the project are the Faculty of Geographical Sciences - Utrecht University, Institute of Inland Water management and Wastewater Treatment - RIZA and the Landscape and Environmental Research Group - University of Amsterdam. This study firstly addressed the effects of changes in climate and land use on the river regime, including runoff, sediment production, transport and deposition in the Rhine basin. Secondly, the hydrological, morphological and ecological effects of soil subsidence, changes in the river regime and other climate related boundary conditions were investigated for inland water systems in the Rhine basin part of the Netherlands. This was done on the basis of a separation in three, connected, sub-systems, i.e. River Rhine branches, terrestrial areas and lake IJsselmeer. Finally, by combining the expected impacts with possible measures for adaptation, the vulnerability of these functions to climate change was assessed.
Brink BJE ten; Strien A van; Hinsberg A van; Reijnen MJSM; Wiertz J; Alkemade JRM; Dobben HF van; Higler LWG; Koolstra BJH; Ligtvoet W; Peijl M van der; Semmekrot S(Alterra, 2001-01-18)
Four supplementary operational indicators are established to support national policy makers on nature conservation: Natural Capital Index (NCI-framework); Species Group Trend Index; Red List Indicator; Policy Target Achievement Indicator on Ecological Main Network. The Natural Capital Index provides information on state of natural and agricultural ecosystems and the extent into which men affect them in modern, industrial times. The NCI is defined as the product of the size of an area and its quality.Ecosystem quantity is defined as a percentage of the total considered area. Ecosystem quality is defined as ratio between the current state and a particular baseline state, also expressed as percentage. NCI can be determined for the entire country, for physical-geographical regions and also for specific habitat types such as forests, heather, dunes, wetlands and agriculture. The Species Group Trend Index and Red List Indicator provide supplementary information on the species level. The former represents the trends of species groups since 1950. The latter is a measure of the degree in which species are threatened and face extinction. The Policy Target Achievement Indicator provides information of the degree in which specific policy targets are met on the realisation of the Ecological Main Network in terms of area and quality. This indicator is not yet operational and will be further developed with the Expertise Centre LNV.
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