Elzenga HE; Smit JRK; Verhagen H (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-01-31)
The industrial waste prevention potential is calculated by summation of the prevention potential for a large number of specific waste streams, which are defined at a 3-digit ISIC level (with emphasis on process-related wastes). Along with the prevention potential, the yearly amounts of wastes released are also determined (for the year 1990 or 1991). The only criterion used in the selection of prevention options was technical feasibility: economic feasibility was not an issue in the selection procedure. The prevention options are devided into three 'levels of certainty' (high, medium and low) to indicate which part of the prevention potential is based on technology already proven on an industrial scale, and which part is based on technology needing further research before implementation. A prevention potential of 11.8% is estimated for the total amount of industrial waste (21,000 kilotonnes yearly). With regard to process-related waste excluding the waste materials phosphogypsum and jarosite (17,900 kilotonnes yearly), 10.2% prevention seems technically feasible. Three branches of industry, i.e. food and beverages, chemicals and building materials are good for 80% of this prevention potential, and are therefore looked upon as the most promissing branches for the realisation of prevention goals.
Hanemaayer AH; Joosten JM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-07-31)
Article 18 of the Dutch Packaging Covenant mentiones a monitoring system that will have to be set up to check the progress made in realizing the objectives laid down in this covenant. The RIVM/LAE (Laboratory for Waste Materials and Emissions) was asked to carry out the output analyses as a part of this monitoring system for packaging materials. These analyses were carried out for the first time in 1993 for the years 1991 and 1992. This report presents the results of the output analyses for 1993. It provides information on the amount, composition and destination of the packaging waste from the different categories (households, commercial sector and industry) in 1993. The accuracy of the data for the different categories is also indicated. The results for 1993 are compared with the results from previous years (1986, 1991 and 1992). The amount of packaging waste originating from households (recycling excluded) has been measured by means of sorting analyses for the last twenty years. Packaging waste from the commercial sector and industry was measured through questionaires in 1992 and 1993 ; other methods were used for previous years. The following conclusions can be drawn taking into account the inaccuracy of the data for the different years: 1) Between 1992 and 1993 the amount of packaging waste from households and the commercial sector did not increase. The amount of packaging waste from industry even decreased in 1993. 2) From 1986 till 1993 the total amount of packaging waste increased by approximately 27 or 15 percent, depending on whether the results from 1993 were compared with the respective determined or corrected figures for 1986. In 1986 the amount of glass in the deposit system rejected by industry was included. Comparing 1986 with 1993 and excluding the rejected glass for 1986 the total amount of packaging waste increased by approximately 31 or 18 percent, depending again on the above mentioned determined or corrected figures.
Buijze A; Otte PF (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-08-31)
This report presents the results of sorting analyses of paper and cardboard waste, separated at source and collected house-to-house. The analyses took place in January 1994 in the framework of activities defined in an agreement between the Dutch Government and the packaging industry, the so called 'Packaging Convenant'. Sorting analyses proved that the average amount of paper originated from used packagings is 20,6 %. The impurity, defined as non-paper or non-cardboard, is quantified at 1,5 % average. The average amount of drink-packaging (laminated cardboard) is quantified at 0.1 %.
Etman EJ; Duesmann HB; Eijssen PHM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-06-30)
This document on the manufacture of pigments has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and standards and licences.
Etman EJ; Duesmann HB; Eijssen PHM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-06-30)
This document on the manufacture of aromatic substances and flavourings has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and standards and licences.
Buijze A; Otte PF (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-09-30)
This report presents the results of sorting analyses of used glass derived from communal glass-waste containers. Analyses took place in January 1994 in the framework of activities defined in the Packaging Convention, an agreement between the Dutch Government and the packaging industry to reduce the amount of packaging waste. Glass samples from 10 sites were analyzed for the origine of used packagings (pots or bottles), color and the presence of impurities (non-glass). Sorting analyses proved that the average amount of glass originated from bottles is 78.8 % and from pots 17.7 % of the total sample. Colorness glass is found 38.5 % of the total sample. The presence of impurities, defined as non-glass, is quantified 1.2 % of the total sample. Separate collected used packagingglass is calculated at 68 % of the total amount of used packagingglass.
Brinkmann FJJ; Fortezza F; Ritsema R; Wilde PGM de (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-12-31)
In the Netherlands pieces of unused car upholstery material (made fire resistant with antimony-trioxide, Sb2O3 ) are used as a fill up material in maneges. Antimony concentrations in the material range from 100 - 150 mg/kg. Leaching tests of the material proved negative and soil and dust samples contained antimony only at background level.
Plassche EJ van de; Polder MD; Schipper-Zablotskaja M (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-06-30)
in the present report a risk assessment of polybrominated flame retardants carried out by the Dutch ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment in 1990 is evaluated in the view of new information. The assessment focusses on three aspects on which the following is concluded: 1) One can expect an increase in polybromodibenzodioxins, polybromodibenzofurans and their chlorinated analogs (PBDD/F and PCDD/F, respectively) formation in MWI plants as a consequence of the growing use of brominated flame retardants in plastics. However, it is not possible to draw strict conclusions from this supposition. First of all, it is not evident that the use of brominated flame retardants will increase. Then, since the products of incineration in MWI plants form a complex function of process conditions, no calculations input/yield can be done. 2) Although informations is very scarce decabromodphenyl ether (DeBDE) can be classified as a persistant chemical. Photodegradation in water has been schown but will probably not be an important route since most of the DeBDE ends up in the sediment where the sunlight intensity is low. Biodegradation, aerobic as well as anaerobic, has not been studied. Both routes may occur but it an be expected that the rates will be very low. 3) Biomagnification of commercial pentabromodiphenylether (PEBDE) does occur in significant quantities. Based on actual levels in fish and sediment it can be stated that these levels are always below the Maximum Permissible Concentration taking into account secondary poisoning of predators via consumption of fish. The Negligible Concentration is exceeded by at least a factor 10, however.
Anthonissen IH; Smallegange JP (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-12-31)
In order to reuse contaminated subbase material from a road in Limburg, a civil engineering and environmental investigation was conducted. The aim of this investigation program was to determine which additive mixed with the sampled subbase material produces satisfactory civil engineering and environmental results. Specimen were made from representative samples of this material together with different percentages of cement (4-7-10 and 12%), 20% of geosta, this being a mixture of 60% cement and 40% of geosta-E, which was supposed to be a promising immobilisation agent and finally a mixture of 3% of cement and 3% of bitumen emulsion (EMC). The civil engineering pre-investigation showed that specimen made with at least 7% of cement meet the required compressive strength of 5 N/mm2 after 28 days of curing. The specimen made with 20% of geosta did not meet the required compressive strength. Specimen made with 7% and 12% of cement, 20% of geosta and EMC were subjected to an environmental investigation which specifically examined the leaching behaviour of arsenic, copper, lead and zinc and the composition of mineral oil and polycyclo aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's). This environmental investigation showed that the specimen with cement only meet the norms of category 1 as stipulated in the Dutch General Administrative Order on Building Materials. The others meet the norms of category 2. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that the stabilisation of the sampled contaminated subbase with 7% of cement satisfactorially meets civil engineering and environmental requirements.
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