Olivier JGJ; Thomas R; Brandes LJ; Peters JAHW; Coenen PWHG (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-05-31)
This report documents the 2001 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of a first assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data. From the inventory it can be concluded that total CO2-equivalent emissions of the six greenhouse gases together increased in 1999 by about 6% relative to 1990 (1995 for fluorinated gases). This increase would be a half per cent less when comparing temperature-corrected emissions. Emissions of CO2 and N2O have increased from 1990 to 1999 by about 8% and 15%, respectively, while in the same period CH4 emissions have decreased by 20%, effectively to a level 0.5% point below N2O emissions. Of the fluorinated greenhouse gases, for which 1995 is the reference year, emissions of HFCs and PFCs increased by 20 and 40% in 1999, respectively, while SF6 emissions (completely recalculated) decreased by about 20%.
Schijndel MW van; Duvoort GL; Wesselink LG; Booij H (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-12-10)
This study evaluates the Dutch industrial environmental policy on emissions of Volatile Organic Substances (VOC) in the last 15 years and provides insight into VOC emissions in the Netherlands in 2010. Up till now, voluntary agreements between public authorities and industrial branches within the framework of the Dutch VOC2000 programme, called KWS2000, have made an important contribution to the VOC policy. Voluntary agreements are concluded to be reasonably successful. The target for reducing industrial VOC emissions by at least 55% between 1981 and 2000 through the implementation of environmental technologies has been reached. Different factors of influence (e.g. policy instruments) on the implementation process were characterised for five important industrial branches. A new expert-support computer model was used as a tool to simulate the implementation of environmental technologies and to provide insight into the basic assumptions and data used. The success of the voluntary agreements was found in the embedding of the agreements in the practice of granting and enforcing permits in combination with the availability and affordability (from a company point of view) of technologies, and the compatibility of these with the existing technological system. Considering the present environmental policy pressure on VOC emission reduction, about 15% emission reduction at the most can be achieved between 2000 and 2010 in the evaluated branches of industry. Intensification of policy pressure could lead to about 30-35% reduction. This intensification is needed to reaching the VOC emission ceiling for the industrial sector in the Netherlands, as agreed in the 4th National Environmental Policy Plan (NMP-4).
Wilde PGM de; Anthonissen IH; Beek AIM van de; Keijzer J (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-10-31)
The lack of landfill capacity for waste in the Netherlands has prompted a Dutch government policy strongly recommending the re-use of (bulky) waste in building and road construction works. To minimize pollution, secondary raw materials have to meet the standards for inorganic leaching and organic composition as set down in the General Administrative Order on Construction Materials (Soil and Surface Waters Protection) in the Netherlands. The RIVM has investigated the impact this Administrative Order will have on the applicability of potential secondary raw materials and products manufactured from these materials. The granular waste materials studied consist of various types of demolition wastes, bottom ash from municipal waste incinerators and powdered coal-fired power installations, phosphorus slag, steel slag, polluted dredging sludge, jet grit, different kinds of casting sand, mining stone and iron-containing sludge from drinking-water purification. Products studied were various types of cement concrete, asphalt cement and road-base materials. Whenever possible three or even more samples of the same waste were taken at different locations. The chemical composition and leaching behaviour were measured after pretreatment of the samples, the latter according to the standard leaching tests for the Netherlands, i.e. a column test for the granulates and a diffusion test for the products. When compared with the standards of the Order, the results for the granulate samples showed inconsistency in leaching and composition behaviour, i.e. some of the samples met the standards of the Order and so can be suitably applied as building materials, while others of the same granulate did not and so cannot be applied. The products showed fairly good consistency in their composition and leaching behaviour. With a few exceptions, all products from wastes were found suitable for application.
Schipper-Zablotskaja M (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-07-31)
Environmental policy should be based on good information on the sources of pollution. Such information is essential, not only for an optimum diagnosis of the present situation, but it is also the basis for future scenarios. The standard form for an information document is a "process description". Such process descriptions are made for many economic activities in the Netherlands: industrial processes, agriculture, traffic, energy sector. The process description "Municipal Waste Incineration Plant" has been compiled in a series of descriptions in the framework of the Energy Project on request of the Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment. An integral approach in processes is crucial for the current scheme of the process description. A general flow-diagram of an MSWI plant with an energy recovery boiler, including a flue-gas treatment plant is given. The most efficient parts of the plant (refuse pit, grate, oven, flue-gas cleaning equipment) are described in more detail. An influence of incineration conditions on flue-gas emissions and the quality of residues is focused on. The possibilities of different types of gas cleaning systems are also given. The waste streams from MSWI plants are taken in consideration as well. From the point of view of of environmental pollution and energy possible improvements are suggested. A short inventory of currently operating MSWI plants in the Netherlands and plants to be built in the near future is given. Information on the current Dutch emission legislation is presented.
Spakman J; Olivier JGJ; Loon MMJ van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-12-31)
This inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands has been prepared according to the IPCC Guidelines and complies with the obligations under the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism and the UN-FCCC for emission reports on greenhouse gases not covered under the Montreal protocol. The temperature corrected total emissions of non-ODP greenhouse gases were found to increase by 7% from 1990 to 1996, mainly due to increasing emissions of CO2. In 1996, the temperature-corrected carbon dioxide emissions were 7.6% higher than in 1990. In the period 1990-1996, methane emissions decreased by 9%, but nitrous oxide emissions increased by 13%. The emissions of HFCs were 47% higher in 1996 than in 1990, while the CO2-equivalent emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and (potential) SF6 increased by 26%. In 1996, CO2 contributed 75% to all CO2-equivalent emissions in the Netherlands, CH4 contributed about 11%, N2O about 9% and the non-ODP halocarbons about 5%. A short description is given on how the Guidelines have been applied in the Netherlands. Differences between IPCC sectors and Target Groups in the Netherlands are addressed and resulting emission differences accounted for.
Bremmer HJ; Troost LM; Kuipers G; Koning J de; Sein AA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-02-28)
Based on the results of an inventory of possible dioxin sources other than municipal solid waste (MCW) incinerators, a number of sources not previously measured, are selected for additional measurements. The results of all measurements carried out in the Netherlands, partly supplemented with data from the literature were then elaborated into a total estimate of the dioxin emissions in the Netherlands. In total, the emission to air in 1991 was 484 g I-TEQ. Of that total, the MSW incinerators emit the largest quantity, i.e. 80% of the total. The remainder of the estimated yearly emission is destributed over 16 different process categories. As a result of emission regulating developments it is expected that the dioxin emission in the year 2000 will be descreased to 58 g I-TEQ.
Quarles van Ufford CHA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-01-31)
This document on Wood preservation has been published within the SPIN-project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and standards and licences.
Verhagen H; Meijer PJ; Joosten JM; Hanemaayer AH; Bremmer HJ; Duvoort GL; Kamphuis Ch; Blom WF; Duvoort-van Engers LE; Nagelhout D; et al. (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-07-31)
The results of the monitoring programme on priority waste streams in the Netherlands are presented for the year 1994. Basic data and additional information on the quantities, specified into origin and method of disposal, as well as on the composition, are presented in a standard format for 26 priority waste streams. The procedures and sources of information used to determine the data have been described in measuring protocols. Furthermore a survey of the amounts per method of disposal for the years 1993 and 1994 is given.
Cornelissen AAJ; Otte PF (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-03-31)
This report presents the results of an investigation on the composition of (residual) household waste of the Netherlands, collected from eleven neighbourhoods. The waste from these areas offers a rather accurate picture of the waste collected nationwide. The report gives detailed information about 14 main components, numerous subcomponents, the percentage of packaging materials and batteries in household waste. The main components in (residual) household waste are: Bio-waste and undefined residual waste (39,8%); paper and cardboard (27,1%) ; plastics (8,9%) ; glass (4,2%) and ferrous metals ( 4,1%).
Hanemaayer AH; Joosten JM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-06-30)
Article 18 of the Dutch Packaging Covenant mentions a monitoring system that will have to be set up to check on the progress made in realizing the objectives laid down in this Covenant. The RIVM's Laboratory for Waste Materials and Emissions was asked to carry out the output analyses as a part of this monitoring system for packaging materials.This report presents the results of the output analyses for 1994. It provides information on the amount, composition and destination of the packaging waste from the different categories (households, commercial and industrial sector) in 1994, with the accuracy of the data for the different categories indicated. The results for 1994 are compared with those from previous years (1986, 1991, 1992 and 1993). The amount of packaging waste originating in households (recycling excluded) has been measured for the last twenty years by means of sorting analyses. Packaging waste from the commercial and industrial sector for 1992 - 1994 was measured through the use of questionnaires ; other methods were used for previous years.Taking into account the accuracy of the data for the different years, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Between 1993 and 1994 the total amount of packaging waste did not increase. (2) From 1986 till 1994 the total amount of packaging waste increased by approximately 15 percent. In 1986 the amount of glass in the deposit system rejected by industry was included. Comparing 1986 with 1993 and excluding the rejected glass for 1986, the total amount of packaging waste was seen to increase by approximately 18 percent. (3) For 1994 an interim target was mentioned in the Dutch Packaging Covenant, implying that the total amount of packaging waste in 1994 should not be higher than in 1991. Even when a possible overestimation for 1991 is taken into account, it is possible to conclude that the total amount of packaging waste did not increase between 1991 and 1994.
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