Engelen RFJM; Feimann PFL; Oostenrijk CH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1998-05-31)
The, in connection with this project adapted, Environmental Information and Planning Model (Dutch acronym RIM+) enables the users to calculate environmental costs on a scale of regions (provinces). RIM+ is an instrument both for maintaining data on emissions, energy use, waste production and costs of environmental measures and using these data for calculations. The adaption of the model took place within the boundaries of consistency between national and provincial calculations. The calculation of the environmental costs became possible with data which already was known by the RIVM. Also provincial data about the allocation of social processes (industry, traffic, agriculture) and the implementation of environmental measures has been obtained. It is both the intention of IPO and RIVM to continue this cooperation to improve the quality of costs calculations in the future.
Annema JA; Brink RMM van den; Geurs KT; Wee GP van; Flikkema H; Waard J van der (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-10-31)
Proposals for relatively extreme measures and measuring sets issuing from government departments to reduce CO2-emissions from road transport in the Netherlands were calculated to determine their effects. The main conclusions from this determination have been worked into a survey of which the most important aspects are given: 1) Given the projected CO2-emission from road transport in the Netherlands of 19.5 Mtons (a 10% reduction compared to the 1986 leverl), the calculated 20-25.5 Mtons in 2010 and of 21-29 Mtons in 2020 will exceed the Dutch target. Therefore extreme variants of extra-conventional measures (e.g. higher fuel prices, and lower speeds) will be needed to meet this goal. 2) The measuring set called 'liveable city' (spatial planning, stimulation of electric vehicles) has the potential, albeit long-term, to realise a CO2-emission in 2010 of 27 Mtons and in 2020 of 20.5 Mtons, not far from the Dutch emission target of 19.5 Mtons.
Dekker PM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-07-31)
This report describes a study to the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic in compost from different areas. The contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn and As are compared with maximum tolerable levels of metals in compost. More over, a statistical research is carried out to the relation between the contents of metals in compost and i) the contents of metals in soil, ii) air deposition, iii) percentage garden and iv) season.
Brouwer JGH; Hulskotte JHJ; Annema JA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-08-31)
This document on "lighting of fireworks" has been published within the WESP cooperation project within the Working Group on Emissions from Service Industries and Product Use. In this project information has been collected on processes taking place in the target groups: consumers, construction, service industries, environmental cleanup and consulting firms and recreation services in reaching agreement on the data used by various institutes and to providing support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology, and standards and permits.
Cornelissen AAJ; Beker D (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1998-07-22)
The (residual) household waste collected from 1000 households in the Netherlands, was investigated for physical composition. Waste from these selected households was found to give a fairly accurate picture of the waste collected nationwide.This report gives detailed information on 15 main components, numerous subcomponents and the percentage of packaging materials and batteries in household waste. Moreover the report contains information on the concentration of a number of elements present in household waste. The main components in (residual) household waste are: bio-waste and undefined residual waste (30.7%), paper and cardboard (34.9%), plastics (11.0%), glass (4.7%), ferrous metals (3.8%), non-ferrous metals (0.7%), textiles (3.1%), bread (2.2%), animal waste (1.7%), ceramics (2.7%), carpets (0.4%), leather/rubber (1.1%), wood (2.2), special waste (0.5%) and small chemical waste (0.4%). The percentage of packaging materials was found to be 25.7% of the total amount of household waste.
Hagoort MJ (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1999-02-09)
On the basis of this literature review on "accessibility", a proposal has been made for a new measure of accessibility, which can be used to estimate if jobs are accessible to the employment market. Generally speaking, accessibility relates to the amount of money, time and trouble required to travel from the place of origin to the desired destination (either for persons or goods). The literature review also showed the notion of "accessibility" to be multi-interpretable. "Accessibility" is only meaningful when it is clear, for instance, from what perspective and for what goal, activity, travel motivation and travel mode accessibility is applied. Even then, the usefulness of the different accessibility measures found in the literature strongly depends on the precise research issue.
Hanemaayer AH; Joosten JM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-07-31)
Article 18 of the Dutch Packaging Covenant mentiones a monitoring system that will have to be set up to check the progress made in realizing the objectives laid down in this covenant. The RIVM/LAE (Laboratory for Waste Materials and Emissions) was asked to carry out the output analyses as a part of this monitoring system for packaging materials. These analyses were carried out for the first time in 1993 for the years 1991 and 1992. This report presents the results of the output analyses for 1993. It provides information on the amount, composition and destination of the packaging waste from the different categories (households, commercial sector and industry) in 1993. The accuracy of the data for the different categories is also indicated. The results for 1993 are compared with the results from previous years (1986, 1991 and 1992). The amount of packaging waste originating from households (recycling excluded) has been measured by means of sorting analyses for the last twenty years. Packaging waste from the commercial sector and industry was measured through questionaires in 1992 and 1993 ; other methods were used for previous years. The following conclusions can be drawn taking into account the inaccuracy of the data for the different years: 1) Between 1992 and 1993 the amount of packaging waste from households and the commercial sector did not increase. The amount of packaging waste from industry even decreased in 1993. 2) From 1986 till 1993 the total amount of packaging waste increased by approximately 27 or 15 percent, depending on whether the results from 1993 were compared with the respective determined or corrected figures for 1986. In 1986 the amount of glass in the deposit system rejected by industry was included. Comparing 1986 with 1993 and excluding the rejected glass for 1986 the total amount of packaging waste increased by approximately 31 or 18 percent, depending again on the above mentioned determined or corrected figures.
Buijze A; Otte PF (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-08-31)
This report presents the results of sorting analyses of paper and cardboard waste, separated at source and collected house-to-house. The analyses took place in January 1994 in the framework of activities defined in an agreement between the Dutch Government and the packaging industry, the so called 'Packaging Convenant'. Sorting analyses proved that the average amount of paper originated from used packagings is 20,6 %. The impurity, defined as non-paper or non-cardboard, is quantified at 1,5 % average. The average amount of drink-packaging (laminated cardboard) is quantified at 0.1 %.
Bresser AHM; Egmond PM van; Fraters B; Hoogervorst NJP; Liere L van; Mulschlegel JHC; Willems WJ; Boers PCM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1999-05-01)
The Dutch government has announced additional nitrogen measures on ca. 240,000 ha dry sandy soils in order to realise quality standards for nitrate in groundwater (i.e. 50 mg/l).The most important element of this additional policy is the introduction of lower levy-free surpluses for N for dry sandy areas. Here we estimate the effects of these additional measures. Provided the levy-free N surpluses are not exceeded, the area in which the nitrate standards will be met will increase from ca. 55% (present situation) to 75-85% of the total agricultural area in the Netherlands. The effect of the additional measures on the surface water quality will be small. However, it is questionable whether the levy-free N-surpluses wil be achieved in practise.
Matthijsen AJCM; Kroeze C (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-04-30)
As a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Netherlands is committed to report Dutch greenhouse gas emissions to the climate secretariat. The scenarios presented in this report were prompted by the need for a better insight into the extent of current emissions and their future development. Scenarios included emissions of some fluorocarbons (HFCs, PFCs, FICs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the Netherlands. In the reference scenario, emissions of HFCs, PFCs, FICs, and SF6 increase in the Netherlands from 886 (metric) tons in 1990 to 6841 tons in 2020. In the year 2000, these emissions equal about 9 Mtons of CO2 equivalents, or 5% of the Dutch CO2 target, set by the Dutch government. In 2020 emissions amount to 21 Mton CO2 equivalents, or 13% of the CO2 target in that year (i.e. a stabilization with respect to 2000). Scenarios assuming maximum emission control show emissions that are 40 - 50% lower than emissions in the no-control scenarios. In the scenario where use is restricted to stationary cooling and closed foam blowing, emissions are 15 - 25% lower in the no-control case, and 50 - 60% lower in the maximum emission control case than in the reference scenario. The largest reductions (up to 90%) are found in scenarios in which the compounds or blends used have an average GWP lower than 250.
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