Fischer PH; Lebret E; Franssen AEM; Cuijpers CEJ; Ameling CB; Hollander AEM de; Houthuijs DGM; Staatsen BAM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-04-30)
Participants of the meeting came from the Central Government, (Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports, State Health Inspectorate and the Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment), from local authorities (Provinces, Regional Health Services) and from RIVM. Aim of the workshop was to discuss the functionality of monitoring systems as desired by risk managers and policy makers, in relation to the available methods, existing information databases and research tools. The programme of the workshop included presentations on backgrounds of monitoring, on information needs among the risk managers and policy makers, on developments in (physical) environment and in public health research, on health impact indicators of environmental pollution, and on the functionality of monitoring systems. Furthermore, based on examples of specific monitoring questions, the participants discussed about the effect-sizes to detect and the implications for the sizes of the monitoring programme, and the consequences of false-positive and false-negative results for the decisions based on these results. In the main discussion at the end of the workshop it was emphasized that each monitoring activity should be tested against the criteria discussed in the workshop. Monitoring programmes should be set up very selectively, on a situation-specific basis. Initiators of monitoring programmes can be both risk managers/policy makers and researchers ; in the design phase it is crucial to have consultations between both parties about the objectives, expectations about effect-size to be detected by the monitoring system, feasibility and reliability of a monitoring programme in terms of type-I and type-II errors. Based on these consultations, sound decisions cab be made about the desirability and about the design of such (usually multi year) programmes.
Brinkmann FJJ; Fortezza F; Willemsen WH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-01-31)
As a prevention of lumping small quantities of iron-cyanide-complexes (15-60 mg CN/kg) are added to the salt for icy roads. It is shown that these concentrations pose no risks to health or ecosystems. After a winterperiod however, sludge from waste-water treatment plants may contain concentrations close to 50 mg CN/kg, the Dutch limit for chemical waste.
Janssen PJCM; Speijers GJA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-01-31)
This report contains a basic step-to-step description of the procedure followed in the derivation of the human-toxicological Maximum Permissible Risk (MPR ; in Dutch: Maximum Toelaatbaar Risico, MTR) for soil contaminants. In recent years this method has been applied for a large number of compounds (the results have been published as separate RIVM reports). In the report the different steps in the procedure are discussed briefly and an outline of the kind of problems to be dealt with, is provided. General issues of regulatory risk assessment aimed at the derivation of health-based limit values are addressed and reference is made to some basic background literature. Overall, the approach for MPR-derivation as described here, is a pragmatic one in that use is made of existing toxicological evaluations by national and international bodies. Thus, it is attempted to avoid unwanted duplication of effort. In case no adequate review was available for a particular compound, a complete literature search for original publications is done. The results, however, were used selectively. The MPR-derivation as a whole proceeds in a structured manner, it is nevertheless stressed throughout the report that, unavoidably, for an adequate evaluation of the data on the different toxicological endpoints some professional judgement is needed.
Wesselink LG; Bovekamp A van de (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-12-31)
Aims of this study were to calculate emission reductions (%) for policy target groups (like industry, traffic and refineries) to evaluate present agreements on emission reductions and to advise on possible new long-term agreements. Aims were subject to the conditions that harmonized methods and data to be used and, where possible, that the local situation be considered. Using the Dutch Government's definition of environmental quality objectives for priority substances in air, soil and surface waters, i.e. the limit and target concentrations, we calculated the corresponding emission levels and then compared these to present emissions. Subsequently, priority substances were ranked in terms of: i) emission reduction needed, ii) targeted sector and iii) scale - number and location of emission sources - at which environmental quality was exceeded. If target concentrations in air, surface water and soil are to be met, large reduction of more than 50% on a national scale will be needed for PM10, ethene, benzene, BaP, NOx and fluoride to air; copper, nickel and zinc to water, and copper, cadmium an zinc to soil.
Bakker J; Meent D van de (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-06-30)
The algorithm for the calculation of the Potentially Affected Fraction (PAF) as described by Hamers et al. (1995) was performed on 49 substances (heavy metals, pesticides and priority substances). The toxic stress of both individual substances (PAF) and all substances together (Itox ) was calculated. Concentrations in the surface water compartment and soils were calculated from recent emission data with the SimpleBox model version 2.0. In addition the toxic stress caused by substances calculation for the year 1995. The algorithm used and described in this report will be proposed for the calculation of the PAF and Itox in future.
Klepper O; Meent D van de (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-06-30)
The Potentially Affected Fraction (PAF) is the fraction of species exposed above the no-effect concentration (NOEC). The PAF is a measure that allows a comparison in toxic stress between substances and areas. In the report the PAF is calculated for four heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) and a selection of agricultural pesticides in the Netherlands. PAF values are between 5-50% for large areas, with the highest values in the sandy areas in the middle and southern provinces, and major toxicants copper and zinc.
Traas, TP; Posthuma L; Notenboom J; Zwart D de; Klepper O; Aldenberg T (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-08-31)
This reports deals with the definition of a research program for ecological consequences of exceedance of quality objectives. Methods are available for estimating the Potentially Affected Fraction (PAF) of species, the 'thermometer' for toxic stress. Translating the PAF to ecologically relevant effects is illustrated by comparing NOEC exceedance with acute mortality in laboratory experiments. The calibration of potential effects on structure of the ecosystem, is illustrated by analysis of ecological effects at two contaminated sites. A research program is defined to underpin the calibration in terms of ecosystem processses and Life Support Functions.
Collombon M; Kamp R van de; Struijs J (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-12-31)
Methods that are elemental in toxicity monitoring of the aqueous compartment have been validated. One method has recently been implemented in a joint pilot monitoring of an RIVM/RIZA project to map the toxic potency of Dutch surface waters in terms of the Potentially Affected Fraction of species (PAF measured). Three procedures, partly laid down in Standard Operation Procedures, to obtain a 'water concentrate' of a surface-water sample were compared. All three rely on the use of macro-reticular resins of the XAD type to extract organic micro-pollutants from water, but are different as to how the toxicants are returned to the water phase. The performance of the methods was evaluated by comparing the chemical recovery of well-defined test mixtures. Increasing loss of test compounds was measured using two methods applied to chemicals in the (semi-)volatile range of 0.1 to 100 Pa.m3/mol. A new approach, based on the application of super-critical fluid extraction, the upper limit above which total loss of (volatile) substances was apparent, could be increased up to 2000 Pa.m3/mol.
Kramer PRG; Jonkers DA; Liere L van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-02-28)
Proceedings of a workshop organised in response to a request of the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment by the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment. To discuss the state-of-the-art in research on the interaction between contaminants and nutrients sixteen presentations of scientists from different countries have been concluded in the proceedings. Concluding remarks were: the lower the trophic state reached in combatting eutrophication, the more important the interaction of toxicants ; interactions are especially important when it comes to persistent hydrophobic substances and heavy metals ; although eutrophic systems act as a sink for toxic substances, it is not recommended to keep these systems eutrophied ; it is not recommended to give priority to either contaminants or eutrophication in emission reduction ; both have to be attacked simultaneously.
Elzinga EJ; Berg B van den; Grinsven JJM van; Swartjes FA; Vissenberg HA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-04-30)
Freundlich equations (Freundlich isotherms) were derived for the three heavy metals, cadmium, copper and zinc, by regression in an extensive literature data set. The Freundlich constants were described as a function of such soil characteristics as pH, CEC and organic matter content. Freundlich isotherms were derived using both the total concentration in solution and the activity of the free metal ions in solution. The Freundlich isotherms were applied to field data for 20 Dutch soils. In general, the isotherms seem to underestimate measured values. The isotherms may provide a supplement to presently available partition data sets for estimating mobility and bioavailability of metals in soils.
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