Berdowski JJM; Draaijers GPJ; Janssen LHJM; Hollander JCTh; Loon M van; Roemer MGM; Vermeulen AT; Vosbeek M; Visser H(TNO, 2001-11-19)
The agreed emission reductions in the Kyoto Protocol require methods to establish the quality and accuracy of the inventory data and to monitor compliance with the Protocol. The IPCC Expert Meeting in November 1997 in the Netherlands concluded that an assessment of inventory data quality was strongly supported by independent checks and additional analysis of uncertainties in the emissions inventories. In this study, carried out in the frame of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change three connected validation procedures have been applied for a methane emission inventory, namely (i) the comparison of emission inventories, (ii) the comparison of modelled with observed methane concentrations, and (iii) the comparison of bottom-up emission estimates with inversely modelled emission estimates. There is a good overall correspondence between the consistent bottom-up METDAT emission inventory and the National Communication data. However, on a country level and on a source category level large discrepancies could been found. The analysis of concentration measurements gives a clear indication of the contribution from the different areas. Time series analysis as such appeared not to be suitable for verification purposes in this study. The technique of emission verification by modelling methane concentrations with the bottom-up estimated emission data as input for the model and comparing the results with measured concentrations has been proven quite successful, at least on a regional scale. The technique applied so far is however not able to indicate whether the individual sources are estimated realistically as well. At present, the technique of inverse modelling has not proven to be robust enough to produce stable results of satisfactory accuracy on a regional scale. At least, there is a lack of sufficient measurement data, e.g. from neighbouring countries and a need for the improvement of background concentration data (by global models).
Spakman J; Olivier JGJ; van Loon MMJ(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-12-31)
This inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands has been prepared according to the IPCC Guidelines and complies with the obligations under the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism and the UN-FCCC for emission reports on greenhouse gases not covered under the Montreal protocol. The temperature corrected total emissions of non-ODP greenhouse gases were found to increase by 7% from 1990 to 1996, mainly due to increasing emissions of CO2. In 1996, the temperature-corrected carbon dioxide emissions were 7.6% higher than in 1990. In the period 1990-1996, methane emissions decreased by 9%, but nitrous oxide emissions increased by 13%. The emissions of HFCs were 47% higher in 1996 than in 1990, while the CO2-equivalent emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and (potential) SF6 increased by 26%. In 1996, CO2 contributed 75% to all CO2-equivalent emissions in the Netherlands, CH4 contributed about 11%, N2O about 9% and the non-ODP halocarbons about 5%. A short description is given on how the Guidelines have been applied in the Netherlands. Differences between IPCC sectors and Target Groups in the Netherlands are addressed and resulting emission differences accounted for.<br>
Boschloo DJ; Stolk AP(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-10-16)
This report presents the tabulated results of the city and street stations of the National Air Quality Monitoring Network in the whole of the Netherlands for the calendar year 1997, summer 1997, winter 1996-1997 and 1 April 1996 - 31 March 1997 (tropical year: EU reference period). The components measured were: fine dust (PM10), CO, oxidant (Ox , which is NO2+O3), O3, NO2, NO, NOx (=NO2+NO), black smoke (which is suspended matter measured by the black smoke method) and SO2. The fine dust (PM10) measurement data are multiplied by a factor 1.33 to correct the systematic underestimation when compared to the EU reference method for PM10.<br>
Maas RJM(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1993-12-31)
The conclusion of this third evaluation is that the environmental policy does have an effect, albeit insufficient to attain targets on time. If the measures that have been proposed - which are often vulnerable - are fully implemented and complied with, the emissions of most pollutants will decline further. This positive development mainly concerns the following areas of environmental concern: acidification, eutrophication, dispersion and disposal. However, further action will be required if the interim targets for the year 2000 laid down in the National Environmental Policy Plan are to be fully achieved. The most significant disappointment is in the realm of climate change. Despite the measures taken, CO2 emissions will probably continue to increase over the next few years. Assuming that all of the adopted measures are implemented, the total environmental costs will add up to approximately 20 billion guilders in the year 2000. this means that costs will be twice as high as they were in 1990. The environmental costs will comprise more than 3% of the gross national product, compared to 2% in 1990. Recent years have generally seen a reduction in environmental pollution per unit of GNP and per capita. The population, production and consumption are constantly growing, which translates into increases in emissions and waste flows if extra technical or organizational measures are not continually taken. Until recently, the emissions and waste flows could be curbed at relatively low cost. However, if economic growth and the size of the population continue to increase, the measure necessary to maintain the emission levels achieved in 2000 or further reduce then to the ultimate target or the natural carrying capacity will become more and more expensive and complicated in the future, barring technical breakthroughs.<br>
Lebret E; Fischer PH; Staatsen BAM; Franssen EAM; de Hollander AEM; Houthuijs DJM(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-03-31)
Environmental health monitoring is defined as the combination of routine measurements and collection, analysis and interpretation of data, required to produce information on (the distribution of) predefined indicators of exposures, body burdens and related public health impact. Examples of indicators and of public health impact are presented. Five types of monitoring activities are described, each with a different type of underlying question. Furthermore, existing data sources, mainly health registries, are critically evaluated on potential usefulness as data sources for environmental health monitoring. An evaluation of monitoring activities abroad, shows that health monitoring programmes are world-wide numerous, however, in almost none of the programmes a direct link is made between environmental factors and health indicators. To design a monitoring system with the desired functionality, the effect-size to be detected by the system needs to be specified first. Next, the number of people to be studied can be assessed by the use of statistical power analysis. The stipulation of an effect size involves value judgements about the biological (or economic) importance of an effect of a certain magnitude and lies in the domain of the risk managers. Before setting up a monitoring activity, policy makers and researchers have to agree on what effects should be minimally detectable and within what time period. It is concluded that the current monitoring activities in the Netherlands and abroad appear to have limited functionality, due to the relative small sample sizes involved, and a lack of integration of information from different disciplines involved in monitoring activities. Future monitoring programmes can be improved by a more intensive interaction among scientists of different disciplines involved in the phase of model formulation and development. Recommendations for such an integrated framework are specified.<br>
Boschloo DJ; Stolk AP(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1999-08-01)
This report presents the results of the chemical composition measurements of precipitation in the Netherlands in 1997. Measurements were performed on 4-weekly samples obtained from the National Precipitation Chemistry Monitoring Network. Samples from 15 stations were analysed for main components and inorganic micro-components (heavy metals). Analysis of the main component samples determined the concentrations of free acid (hydrogen ions/hydrogen carbonate), sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, chloride, nitrate, sulphate and phosphate, along with conductivity and pH value. The samples for heavy metals were analysed for cadmium, copper, iron, lead and zinc. Arsenic, chrome, nickel and vanadium were also determined in samples from two stations. Additionally, separate samples were taken at two stations for analysis of the component mercury and the pesticide lindane (g-HCH).<br>
Swartjes FA; van der Linden AMA; van den Berg R(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1993-05-31)
A new Soil-Groundwater Module has been developed for incorporation in the Dutch Risk Assessment System for New Chemicals. In this module, the exposure of humans and the environment to xenobiotic substances due to sewage sludge application have been determined. Exposure criteria were: 1. accumulation in the uppermost soil layer one year after sewage sludge application, and 2. the maximal substance-concentration of the deeper groundwater. The calculation procedure is incorporated in the menu driven computer program of the Risk Assessment System. For the quantification of the exposure to each new xenobiotic substance the following inputs are needed: - substance characteristics: the sorption coefficient based on organic matter, Kom, and the half-life, DT50-soil, which represent sorption and transformation of the substance, respectively. - the actual substance dose rate on the soil, expressed in kg/ha, which is calculated in the Sewage Sludge Module of the Risk Assessment System. The Kom and DT50-soil should be determined from the n-octanol/water distribution coefficient, Kow, and the Readily Biodegradability test result, respectively.<br>
van Tuinen ST(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-09-29)
Measurements are considered essential for an adequate assessment of radioactivity in the biosphere. The programme of RIVM/LSO includes samples of airdust and deposition taken at the RIVM premises in Bilthoven. Samples of grass and milk were taken from the surroundings of nuclear installations in the Netherlands and on Dutch territory in the vicinity of such installations situated abroad. An overall country milk sample from four milk factories in the Netherlands was also analysed. Data of the National Radioactivity Monitoring Network (LMR) in 1995 are presented as well. Based on the results it is concluded that no significantly deviations from values in previous years were observed. In all cases the activity concentrations are back to or even lower than the levels of just before the Chernobyl accident.<br>
Boschloo DJ; Stolk AP(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-10-16)
This report presents the tabulated results of the regional stations of the National Air Quality Monitoring Network in the regions 4 (Zuid-Holland) and 5 (Noord-Holland) for the calendar year 1997, summer 1997, winter 1996-1997 and 1 April 1996 - 31 March 1997 (tropical year: EU reference period). The components measured were: NH3, fine dust (PM10), CO, oxidant (Ox, which is NO2+O3), O3, NO2, NO, NOx (=NO2+NO), black smoke (which is suspended matter measured by the black smoke method) and SO2. The fine dust (PM10) measurement data are multiplied by a factor 1.33 to correct the systematic underestimation when compared to the EU reference method for PM10.<br>
Stolk AP(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-10-16)
This report documents the tabulated results of the regional stations of the National Air Quality Monitoring Network in the regions 6 (Utrecht & Flevoland), 7 (Gelderland), 8 (Overijssel) and 9 (Noord-Nederland) for the calendar year 1999, summer 1999, winter 1998-1999 and 1 April 1998 - 31 March 1999 (tropical year: EU reference period). The components measured were: NH3, fine dust (PM10), CO, oxidant (Ox , which is NO2+O3), O3, NO2, NO, NOx (=NO2+NO), black smoke (which is suspended matter measured by the black smoke method) and SO2. The fine dust (PM10) measurement data are multiplied by a factor 1.33 to correct the systematic underestimation when compared to the EU reference method for PM10.<br>
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