Geurs KT; Ritsema van Eck JR (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-06-28)
This reports serves as a background report for the analysis conducted for the evaluation of the Fifth Spatial Planning Programme - Part 1, policy proposals - by the RIVM. This report describes the impacts of land-use scenarios on passenger mobility, accessibility en environmental impacts of transport. The main conclusions are that the further urbanisation of the existing Randstad, combined with investments in public transport, i.e. the introduction of high-speed rail or Maglev technology between the major cities of the Randstad area, will result in a significant increase in public transport use, but the impact on the total volume of car traffic is rather small. Job accessibility by public transport will increase strongly, but (even with high-speed rail transport), public transport will not able to compete fully with the car mode. Furthermore, the Randstad area is not likely to function as one coherent metropolitan system as the result of the proposed public transport investments only.
Brink RMM van den; Nijland H; Wee GP van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-09-07)
The Dutch government wants to know if it a good idea to build a new fast railway between Schiphol Airport, via Amsterdam to the North of the Netherlands: the 'Zuiderzeelijn'. The so called 'Projectorganisatie Zuiderzeelijn' was asked to manage researches that are needed to answer this question and the integration of these researches in a Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). At the request of the Projectorganisatie Zuiderzeelijn the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) investigated emissions impacts of six alternatives for a fast railway connection between Schiphol and the North of the Netherlands. Besides, the RIVM evaluated research on noise impacts of these alternatives. In this research we used transport volumes (passenger kilometres per mode) of a CBA study done by the NEI. Emissions per seat kilometre and occupancy rates were calculated by the RIVM. Calculations show that energy use per seat kilometre of maglev trains is approximately three times that of conventional trains. Assuming most likely estimates for energy use per seat kilometre and occupancy rates, all variants will lead to an increase in emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2. Expressed as a percentage of total transport related emissions in the Netherlands, the increase is less than 0.5%. The increase is biggest for the variants with the maglev trains. Indirect emissions due to the construction of the rail lines can be as high as direct emissions due to using trains. All alternatives result in an increase in noise impacts. Several improvements are suggested to improve the way in which CBA's, such as the CBA for the Zuiderzeelijn, deal with environmental aspects of rail options. Firstly, a reliable estimate of effects of the variants requires more independently carried out research into energy use (and related emissions), and noise emissions of the maglev trains. Secondly, it is advised that future CBA's also include energy use and emissions related to the construction of infrastructure. Finally more research into the impact of (rail) infrastructure on the landscape, nature, and barrier effects is needed.
Smeets CJPP; Beck JP (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-04-10)
In recent years thresholds set by the current Council Directive 92/72/EEC on air pollution by ozone have been exceeded substantially in all Member States. The EU obligates all its Member States to carry out a principal investigation of the reduction potential of short-term measures for ozone maxima during episodes. In accordance with this request we conducted a model study and imposed five different short-term scenarios on a nation-wide scale for emissions from 1995 and 2003. The short-term measures solely concerned road traffic since other sectors appeared not very effective in reducing ozon precursor emissions and/or with considerable economic consequences. The nation-wide averaged results suggest an increase of a few percentage points in the ozone maxima in both 1995 and 2003 as a result of short-term measures. It appears that mainly the highly industrialised and populated areas clearly show increased ozone maxima (+5% in 2003), while in the less populated and industrialised areas the maxima vary between -1% and +1%. According to our model study the 10% minimum effectiveness of short-term abatement measures aimed at in the Ozone Position Paper will not be realised in the Netherlands. Permanent and large-scale measures appear to be the only means for realising substantial reductions in the ozone maxima.
Kempen EEMM van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-09-14)
A cost-benefit analysis was carried out in the framework of the Netherlands Fourth National Environmental Policy Plan to set priorities and evaluate several noise policy measures. Benefits are defined as the number of annoyed persons expressed in monetary terms. An important question then is what price an annoyed person will pay for noise prevention. Several of the noise prevention measures are assessed here. In order to assign a monetary value to goods and services, the economist makes use of the Willingness To Pay (WTP): the maximum amount a person is willing to pay to obtain a good or service. Among the various valuation methods available to estimating the WTP of effects such as annoyance, the Contingent Valuation (CV) and Hedonic Pricing (HP) methods are most commonly used. The Contingent Valuation method estimates the WTP for a change in the quantity and/or quality of an environmental good such as noise, by using survey techniques. Applying the Hedonic Pricing method yields a price for annoyance derived from the difference in house prices. An attempt was made using both methods to estimate the benefits of various sets of noise control measures. To this end, data such as the number of households, exposure distributions, house prices and bank rates were employed. Noise control measures for road traffic were found to yield the highest benefits; the noise control measures for air traffic yielded the lowest benefits. Sensitivity analysis showed the choice of threshold value to have great influence on the benefit estimations. Although the results are indicative, they can be of help in decision-making.
Vissenberg HA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-05-17)
This report is based on reports from provinces and municipalities on exceedances of the air quality standards for the compounds sulphur dioxide, suspended particles (black smoke), nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and benzene. No exceedances of air quality standards were reported for industrial areas. By seven municipalities exceedances were reported: thirteen times of nitrogen dioxide and nine times of benzene.
Fiolet DCM; Veen MP van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-06-18)
The present report describes the exposure of the Dutch population to toxaphene based on a literature survey and the EUSES modelling program. Toxaphene is actually a highly complex mixture of mostly chlorinated bornanes, bornenes and bornadienes. The literature survey shows that toxaphene is distributed widely over the world. The emission peaks around 1975, but comparisons of recent levels with baseline levels from the 1970s and 1980s show no significant decline in ambient air. An overview of possible exposure routes show that most of human toxaphene exposure is attributed to intake of fish. The mean total daily dietary toxaphene intake in the Netherlands is estimated to be 1 - 2 ng/kg bodyweight, based on literature data. For consistent fish consumers this intake is seven time's larger. The finding that intake occurs via fish is checked using the EUSES program that models emission, distribution and exposure to organic chemicals. Two types of toxaphenes were defined for the modeling exercise: one lipophilic, volatile group and one water soluble, less volatile group. The EUSES outcome confirms the selective exposure via fish for both types of toxaphenes. Concentrations in intake media calculated by EUSES compare reasonably well to values reported in the literature.
Raaij MTM van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-07-11)
This report describes a proposal for the procedures for setting an Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) for pesticides evaluated in the Netherlands. This deals with both evaluations on the national level (on behalf of the Dutch Board for the Authorisation of Pesticides (CTB)) and evaluations at the European level (EU-monographs), either made within the scope of the Pesticide Act ("Bestrijdingsmiddelenwet" BMW) or the EU Directive 91/414. Subjects covered by this report are: a definition of the concept of the ARfD, criteria for setting an ARfD, the relevance of effects for an ARfD, the use of assessment factors. In addition, a fututre outlook is presented on developments in the field of risk assessment for acute exposure to pesticides.
Zeilmaker MJ; Kranen HJ van; Veen MP van; Janus J (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-02-22)
A quantitative assessment was performed to estimate the cancer risk to individuals using tattoo bands, folders of paper, toys, bed clothes, watch straps and ink which are coloured with azo dyes. In these products benzidine and the benzidine related amines o-anisidine, 2,4-toluenediamine, 4,4'-diaminodifenylmethane, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine en o-toluidine were found. Basically, the risk assessment consists of both a comparison of the (estimated) level of aromatic amines which, during the period in which products are used, enters the body and the acceptable limits, as set for the chronic exposure to these amines. The following aspects were taken into account in the risk assessment: 1) the chance that products contain azo dyes and amines, 2) the frequency with which products are used, 3) the fraction of products which comes into contact with the skin, 4) the level of amines in products, 5) the migration of azo dyes and amines from products, 6) the absorption of azo dyes and amines through the skin and 7) the acceptable limits as set for the chronic exposure to aromatic amines. The "Negligible Risk Level"-NRL (life-long exposure leading to one extra case of cancer in one million exposed persons) and the "Maximal Permissible Risk Level - MPRL (lifelong exposure leading to one extra case of cancer in ten thousand exposed persons) were taken for these last limits. In deriving NRLs/MPRLs two approaches were followed. In the first approach NRL and MPRL values of benzidine and benzidine related amines were derived from epidemiological data. In the second, traditional, approach the NRL and MRPL values of benzidine related amines were derived from animal data.When NRLs/MPRLs were derived from epidemiological data the use of all products leads to a cancer risk which exceeds the NRL. In three products this risk even exceeded the MPRL. When NRLs/MPRLs of benzidine related amines were derived from animal data the cancer risk exceeded the NRL in only three products.
Mennen MG; Bruggen M van; Kliest JJG; Bloemen HJThM; Zwartjes RJW; Fortezza F; Regts TA; Bos HP; Putten EM van; Wiese CJ; et al. (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-10-05)
Public concern about potential health effects triggered an extensive study into the emissions in an industrial area in Dordrecht. This area houses such structures as an industrial waste dump, a chemical plant, a waste incinerator, a sewage treatment plant and several other industrial plants, emitting mainly VOCs, combustion compounds, odourous components (such as hydrogen sulphide) and heavy metals. As a first step, data from emission inventories and emission measurements were used for dispersion modelling; the resulting environmental exposure data were then compared to - health based - guidelines for air quality. In addition, a monitoring programme was started to measure long-term average and hourly concentrations of several relevant compounds in ambient air. The results served primarily to support the technical assumptions of the dispersion model. Among the conclusions the most important were found to be: 1) that the results of the measurements and the dispersion model calculations were consistent in showing that environmental exposure levels of the emitted contaminants did not even come close to international guidelines for the prevention of long-term health effects; 2) that modelling of odour concentrations demonstrated that odour nuisance could not be excluded, in spite of previous technical measures to suppress emissions from the waste dump. It was proposed that current health complaints of the exposed population might be shaped by episodes of serious odour annoyance in the past.
Geertsma RE; Wassenaar C (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-08-31)
The procedures for preservation of human donor skin with glycerol, as applied by the Euro Skin Bank (ESB), were evaluated against the prEN 12442 standard: animal tissues and their derivatives used in the manufacture of medical devices. The focus chosen for this review is on risks related to the transmission of diseases. Product-related hazards were identified. Subsequently, the associated risks and the ESB measures to reduce these risks were discussed. The acceptability of the residual risks was also evaluated by comparing the risk-reducing measures with the prEN 12442, EN 1441, EN 1174 and ISO 14160 standards. Conclusions drawn indicate that ESB procedures as they now stand do not meet all the requirements of these standards. Nonconformities were used to formulate a validation plan containing considerations and suggestions on process definition and control, as well as an assessment of bacteriological and virological inactivation and/or elimination. The implementation of this plan should lead to full conformance with the standards.
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