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dc.contributor.authorWilson-van den Hooven C
dc.contributor.authorOcke M
dc.contributor.authorAlewijn M
dc.contributor.authorvan den Top HJ
dc.contributor.authorvan der A DL
dc.contributor.authorBoer JMA
dc.date.accessioned2017-02-20T06:53:24
dc.date.issued2013-06-20
dc.identifier350410001
dc.description.abstractThe extent to which foods containing harmful substances such as metals and pesticides are consumed by people has been periodically measured in the Netherlands since 1976. To achieve this, a representative sample population used refrigerated boxes to collect duplicate portions (duplicate diet) of everything they consumed (food and beverages) over a 24-hour period. Subsequently, the food was freeze-dried and analyzed in a laboratory. The RIVM coordinated this duplicate diet study commissioned by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA). This report documents how the study was designed and conducted in 2011. Samples of the duplicate diets in this study are stored for future analyses of harmful substances. Comparison of duplicate diets - food diaries During the spring and autumn of 2011 in the region of Wageningen, 122 adults aged 25-65 years collected duplicate diets, which averaged to 2.7 kilograms per participant. They also kept food diaries to report what they had consumed during the day. This served to check whether all consumptions had been collected in the boxes, so that any discrepancies if necessary could be added. The intake data from the food diaries were compared with the amount of nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and fats) in the refrigerated boxes. On average, 13 to 21 percent less protein and fat was measured in the contents of the boxes than was calculated from the diaries. Several explanations for this are possible. For example, one explanation is that participants might have estimated portion sizes of servings differently in their food diaries. Representativeness Participants of the duplicate diet study were representative for the Dutch population with regard to age and gender. Persons with a low education were slightly underrepresented. In the interest of seeing how representative the population was, the quantity of nutrients consumed by the duplicate study participants was compared to a comparable group of people from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS). On average, participants in de duplicate diet study ingested 10-20 percent fewer nutrients according to their food diaries compared to participants of the DNFCS. The long-term average ('habitual') intake of participants in the duplicate diet study was probably underestimated, for example because the participants reduced their food intake during food collection. When using these duplicates for future exposure assessment of harmful substances from foods, it is recommended to adjust for this underestimation.
dc.description.sponsorshipNVWA
dc.formatapplication/pdf
dc.format.extent27 p
dc.format.extent1855 kb
dc.language.isonl
dc.publisherRijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM
dc.publisherRIKILT
dc.relation.ispartofseriesRIVM briefrapport 350410001
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/350410001.html
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/350410001.pdf
dc.subjectduplicaatvoedingnl
dc.subjectvolwassenennl
dc.subjectvoedingsstoffennl
dc.subjectrepresentativiteitnl
dc.subjectadultsen
dc.subjectduplicate dieten
dc.subjectnutrientsen
dc.subjectrepresentativenessen
dc.titleDuplicaatvoedingsonderzoek 2011 bij volwassenen : opzet en uitvoeringnl
dc.title.alternativeDuplicate diet study 2011 on adults : design and implementationen
dc.typeBriefrapport
dc.contributor.departmentM&B
dc.date.updated2017-02-20T05:53:25Z
dc.contributor.divisionV&Z
refterms.dateFOA2018-12-13T10:05:11Z
html.description.abstractSinds 1976 wordt in Nederland periodiek gemeten in welke mate mensen via voeding schadelijke stoffen binnenkrijgen, zoals metalen en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen. Hiervoor verzamelt een representatieve groep deelnemers in een gekoelde box dezelfde porties van alles wat zij gedurende 24 uur hebben gegeten en gedronken (duplicaatvoeding). Vervolgens wordt het voedsel gevriesdroogd en in laboratoria geanalyseerd. Het RIVM coördineert dit zogeheten duplicaatvoedingsonderzoek in opdracht van de Nederlandse Voedselen Warenautoriteit (NVWA). Het materiaal van dit onderzoek wordt bewaard om in de toekomst analyses naar schadelijke stoffen te kunnen uitvoeren. In dit rapport is gedocumenteerd hoe het onderzoek in 2011 is opgezet en uitgevoerd.<br> <br>Vergelijking duplicaatvoedingen - voedingsdagboekjes<br>In het voor- en najaar van 2011 hebben 122 volwassenen in de leeftijd van 25-65 jaar uit de regio Wageningen een duplicaatvoeding verzameld; gemiddeld was dat 2,7 kilogram per deelnemer. Daarnaast hebben zij in een voedingsdagboekje genoteerd wat zij gedurende het etmaal hebben geconsumeerd. Dit is gedaan om te checken of alle consumpties in de box zijn verzameld, zodat eventueel ontbrekende onderdelen konden worden aangevuld. De gegevens uit het voedingsdagboekje zijn vervolgens vergeleken met de hoeveelheid voedingsstoffen (koolhydraten, eiwitten en vetten) in de gekoelde box. Gemiddeld werd er in de inhoud van de gekoelde box 13 tot 21 procent minder eiwitten en vetten gemeten dan dat de deelnemers volgens de dagboekjes hadden opgegeven. Hier zijn meerdere verklaringen voor mogelijk. Eén verklaring is bijvoorbeeld dat de deelnemers de omvang van de genuttigde porties in de dagboekjes anders inschatten.<br> <br>Representativiteit<br>De deelnemers aan het duplicaatvoedingsonderzoek waren representatief voor de Nederlandse bevolking wat betreft leeftijd en geslacht. Personen met een lage opleiding waren enigszins ondervertegenwoordigd. Voor de representativiteit is ook gekeken of deelnemers aan het duplicaatonderzoek evenveel voedingstoffen binnenkrijgen als een vergelijkbare groep mensen in de Voedselconsumptiepeiling (VCP). Volgens de voedingsdagboekjes kregen deelnemers aan het duplicaatonderzoek gemiddeld genomen 10 tot 20 procent minder energie en voedingsstoffen binnen dan de deelnemers aan de VCP. De lange termijn gemiddelde ('gebruikelijke') inname van deelnemers in het duplicaatvoedingsonderzoek is waarschijnlijk onderschat, bijvoorbeeld doordat de deelnemers minder zijn gaan eten op de dag dat ze hun duplicaatvoeding verzamelen. Als de blootstelling aan schadelijke stoffen in de duplicaatvoedingen wordt gemeten, moet deze onderschatting worden ingecalculeerd.<br>
html.description.abstractThe extent to which foods containing harmful substances such as metals and pesticides are consumed by people has been periodically measured in the Netherlands since 1976. To achieve this, a representative sample population used refrigerated boxes to collect duplicate portions (duplicate diet) of everything they consumed (food and beverages) over a 24-hour period. Subsequently, the food was freeze-dried and analyzed in a laboratory. The RIVM coordinated this duplicate diet study commissioned by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA). This report documents how the study was designed and conducted in 2011. Samples of the duplicate diets in this study are stored for future analyses of harmful substances.<br> <br>Comparison of duplicate diets - food diaries<br>During the spring and autumn of 2011 in the region of Wageningen, 122 adults aged 25-65 years collected duplicate diets, which averaged to 2.7 kilograms per participant. They also kept food diaries to report what they had consumed during the day. This served to check whether all consumptions had been collected in the boxes, so that any discrepancies if necessary could be added. The intake data from the food diaries were compared with the amount of nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and fats) in the refrigerated boxes. On average, 13 to 21 percent less protein and fat was measured in the contents of the boxes than was calculated from the diaries. Several explanations for this are possible. For example, one explanation is that participants might have estimated portion sizes of servings differently in their food diaries.<br> <br>Representativeness<br>Participants of the duplicate diet study were representative for the Dutch population with regard to age and gender. Persons with a low education were slightly underrepresented. In the interest of seeing how representative the population was, the quantity of nutrients consumed by the duplicate study participants was compared to a comparable group of people from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS). On average, participants in de duplicate diet study ingested 10-20 percent fewer nutrients according to their food diaries compared to participants of the DNFCS. The long-term average ('habitual') intake of participants in the duplicate diet study was probably underestimated, for example because the participants reduced their food intake during food collection. When using these duplicates for future exposure assessment of harmful substances from foods, it is recommended to adjust for this underestimation.<br>


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