• Pure fruit juice and fruit consumption and the risk of CVD: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study.

      Scheffers, Floor R; Boer, Jolanda M A; Verschuren, W M Monique; Verheus, Martijn; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Sluijs, Ivonne; Smit, Henriëtte A; Wijga, Alet H (2019-02-01)
      Dietary guidelines for pure fruit juice consumption differ between countries, regarding the question whether pure fruit juice is an acceptable alternative for fruit. Currently, little is known about pure fruit juice consumption and the risk of CVD. In this prospective cohort study, we studied the association of pure fruit juice and fruit consumption with the incidence of fatal and non-fatal CVD, CHD and stroke and investigated the differences in association with pure fruit juice consumption between low and high fruit consumers. A validated FFQ was used to estimate dietary intake of 34 560 participants (26·0 % men and 74·0 % women) aged 20-69 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands study. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression after average follow-up of 14·6 years. Compared with no consumption, pure fruit juice consumption up to 7 glasses/week - but not consumption of ≥8 glasses - was significantly associated with reduced risk of CVD and CHD, with HR from 0·83 (95 % CI 0·73, 0·95) to 0·88 (95 % CI 0·80, 0·97). Consumption of 1-4 and 4-8 glasses/week was significantly associated with lower risk of stroke with HR of 0·80 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·99) and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·61, 0·94), respectively. Associations did not differ considerably between low and high fruit consumers. The highest three quintiles of fruit consumption (≥121 g/d) were significantly associated with lower incidence of CVD, with HR of 0·87 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·97) and 0·88 (95 % CI 0·80, 0·98). In conclusion, although we observed favourable associations of moderate pure fruit juice consumption with CVD, for now consumption of whole fruit should be preferred because the evidence of the health benefits of fruit is more conclusive.
    • Trends in human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses among men who have sex with men in North America, Western Europe, and Australia, 2000-2014.

      Chapin-Bardales, Johanna; Schmidt, Axel J; Guy, Rebecca J; Kaldor, John M; McGregor, Skye; Sasse, André; Archibald, Chris; Rank, Claudia; Casabona Barbarà, Jordi; Folch, Cinta; Vives, Núria; Cowan, Susan A; Cazein, Françoise; Velter, Annie; An der Heiden, Matthias; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Marcus, Ulrich; Op de Coul, Eline L M; van Sighem, Ard; Aldir, Isabel; Cortes Martins, Helena; Berglund, Torsten; Velicko, Inga; Gebhardt, Martin; Delpech, Valerie; Hughes, Gwenda; Nardone, Anthony; Hall, H Irene; Johnson, Anna S; Sullivan, Patrick S (2018-12-01)
      The aim of the article was to investigate recent trends in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries in North America, Western Europe, and Australia. Data on annual rates of HIV diagnoses among MSM aged 15 to 65 years from 2000 to 2014 were collected from 13 high-income countries. Joinpoint regression software was used to empirically determine country-specific trend periods. Trends in HIV diagnosis rates and in the proportion of diagnoses occurring in young MSM aged 15 to 24 years were analyzed using Poisson regression and log-binomial regression, respectively. Six countries experienced an increasing trend from 2000 to 2007-08 followed by either a stable or declining trend through 2014. Five countries had recently increasing trends, and two countries had one stable trend from 2000 to 2014. All 13 countries experienced increases in the proportion of diagnoses occurring in young MSM. Since 2008, half of the 13 high-income countries examined experienced stable or decreasing trends. Still, some countries continue to experience increasing HIV trends, and young MSM are increasingly represented among new diagnoses. Efforts to support early sexual health promotion, reduce barriers to pre-exposure prophylaxis, and improve care engagement for young MSM are critical to addressing current HIV trends.
    • Quantitative Assessment of the Health Risk for Livestock When Animal Viruses Are Applied in Human Oncolytic Therapy: A Case Study for Seneca Valley Virus.

      Schijven, Jack; Brizee, Sabrina; Teunis, Peter; de Vos, Clazien; Eblé, Phaedra; Rutjes, Saskia (2018-11-05)
      Some viruses cause tumor regression and can be used to treat cancer patients; these viruses are called oncolytic viruses. To assess whether oncolytic viruses from animal origin excreted by patients pose a health risk for livestock, a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) was performed to estimate the risk for the Dutch pig industry after environmental release of Seneca Valley virus (SVV). The QRA assumed SVV excretion in stool by one cancer patient on Day 1 in the Netherlands, discharge of SVV with treated wastewater into the river Meuse, downstream intake of river water for drinking water production, and consumption of this drinking water by pigs. Dose-response curves for SVV infection and clinical disease in pigs were constructed from experimental data. In the worst scenario (four log
    • Association of serum markers of oxidative stress with myocardial infarction and stroke: pooled results from four large European cohort studies.

      Xuan, Yang; Bobak, Martin; Anusruti, Ankita; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Pająk, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Holleczek, Bernd; Gao, Xin; Brenner, Hermann; Schöttker, Ben (2018-11-07)
      Oxidative stress contributes to endothelial dysfunction and is involved in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. However, associations of biomarkers of oxidative stress with MI and stroke have not yet been addressed in large cohort studies. A nested case-control design was applied in four population-based cohort studies from Germany, Czech Republic, Poland and Lithuania. Derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) levels, as a proxy for the reactive oxygen species burden, and total thiol levels (TTL), as a proxy for the reductive capacity, were measured in baseline serum samples of 476 incident MI cases and 454 incident stroke cases as well as five controls per case individually matched by study center, age and sex. Statistical analyses were conducted with multi-variable adjusted conditional logistic regression models. d-ROMs levels were associated with both MI (odds ratio (OR), 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.40] for 100 Carr units increase) and stroke (OR, 1.17 [95% CI 1.01-1.35] for 100 Carr units increase). TTL were only associated with stroke incidence (OR, 0.79 [95% CI 0.63-0.99] for quartiles 2-4 vs. quartile 1). The observed relationships were stronger with fatal than with non-fatal endpoints; association of TTL with fatal MI was statistically significant (OR, 0.69 [95% CI 0.51-0.93] for 100 μmol/L-increase). This pooled analysis of four large population-based cohorts suggests an important contribution of an imbalanced redox system to the etiology of mainly fatal MI and stroke events.
    • Assessment of impact of traffic-related air pollution on morbidity and mortality in Copenhagen Municipality and the health gain of reduced exposure.

      Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Bender, Anne Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Becker, Thomas; Diderichsen, Finn; Loft, Steffen (2018-12-01)
      Health impact assessment (HIA) of exposure to air pollution is commonly based on city level (fine) particle concentration and may underestimate health consequences of changing local traffic. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution can be assessed at a high resolution by modelling levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO We utilized residential NO The annual mean NO Reducing the NO
    • Influenza vaccination in patients with lung cancer receiving anti-programmed death receptor 1 immunotherapy does not induce immune-related adverse events.

      Wijn, Dirk H; Groeneveld, Geert H; Vollaard, Albert M; Muller, Mirte; Wallinga, Jacco; Gelderblom, Hans; Smit, Egbert F (2018-11-01)
      Influenza vaccination is recommended in patients with cancer to reduce influenza-related complications. Recently, more immune-related adverse events (irAEs) were demonstrated in patients with lung cancer who were vaccinated with the trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine during anti-programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) immunotherapy. Confirmation of these findings is essential before recommendations on influenza vaccination may be revoked. In this cohort study in patients with lung cancer receiving nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks during two influenza seasons (2015/16-2016/17), irAEs have been monitored. Incidence, timing and severity of irAEs were compared between vaccinated patients and non-vaccinated patients. In a compassionate use programme, 127 patients with lung cancer had been treated with at least one dose of nivolumab during two national influenza vaccination campaigns from September until December of 2015 and 2016. Forty-two patients had received the influenza vaccine, and 85 patients were not vaccinated. Median follow-up period was 118 days (interquartile range 106-119). Mean age was 64 years (range 46-83). In vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients, the incidence of irAEs was 26% and 22%, respectively, rate ratio 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-2.65). The incidence of serious irAEs was 7% and 4%, respectively, rate ratio 2.07 (95% CI 0.28-15.43). Influenza vaccination while receiving nivolumab did not result in significant differences in the rates of discontinuation, death, clinical deterioration or tumour response between the groups. Influenza vaccination in patients with lung cancer receiving anti-PD-1 immunotherapy does not induce irAEs in our cohort. With this result, influenza vaccination should not be deterred from this group of patients.
    • Human Parechovirus 1, 3 and 4 Neutralizing Antibodies in Dutch Mothers and Infants and Their Role in Protection Against Disease.

      Karelehto, Eveliina; Wildenbeest, Joanne G; Benschop, Kimberley S M; Koen, Gerrit; Rebers, Sjoerd; Bouma-de Jongh, Saskia; Westerhuis, Brenda M; de Jong, Menno D; Pajkrt, Dasja; Wolthers, Katja C (2018-12-01)
      Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are common pathogens in young children, and in the Netherlands, HPeV1, HPeV3 and HPeV4 are the most frequently detected genotypes. HPeV3 in particular has been associated with severe disease in young infants below 3 months of age while the other genotypes more often infect older children and elicit mild symptoms. We investigated if maternal neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against HPeV1, HPeV3 and HPeV4 protect young Dutch infants from severe disease related to HPeV infection. We conducted a prospective case-control study of Dutch mother-infant pairs. Thirty-eight HPeV-infected infants and their mothers were included as cases, and 65 HPeV-negative children and their mothers as controls. In control infants, we observed nAb seropositivity rates of 41.4%, 33.3% and 27.6%, with median nAb titers of 1:16, 1:12 and 1:8, against HPeV1, HPeV3 and HPeV4, respectively. In control mothers, nAb seropositivity rates were 84.6%, 55.4% and 60.0% with median nAb titers of 1:128, 1:32 and 1:45 against HPeV1, HPeV3 and HPeV4, respectively. The HPeV3 nAb seroprevalence was significantly lower in HPeV3-infected infants and their mothers (0.0% with P < 0.05 and 10.0% with P < 0.001, respectively). In contrast, no differences in nAb seroprevalence against HPeV1 or HPeV4 could be detected between case and control infants or mothers. Our results suggest that young Dutch infants are protected against severe disease related to HPeV1 and HPeV4 by maternal nAbs, but less so against HPeV3 explaining the distinct age distributions and disease severity profiles of children infected with these HPeV genotypes.
    • Endpoint sensitivity in Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay.

      Dang, ZhiChao (2019-01-15)
      The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA) is a screening test for detecting chemicals with thyroid activity. There is little experience in data interpretation and in using AMA data for screening, testing and identifying endocrine disruptors. To investigate the sensitivity of different endpoints of the AMA, the publically available data for 57 thyroid active and inactive chemicals were compiled and analyzed. Endpoints body weight and length appeared as sensitive as apical thyroid responsive endpoints hind limb length (HLL) and developmental stage (DS) for 12 thyroid active chemicals. The sensitivity of body weight, length and HLL was comparable, which is higher than that of DS for 45 thyroid inactive chemicals. The decision logic of the AMA suggests that an advanced development alone indicates thyroid activity. The analysis here showed that advanced development at day 7 could indicate thyroid activity of a chemical. However, advanced development at day 21 may be influenced by thyroid inactive chemicals. Among 39 thyroid inactive chemicals, which affected one or more endpoints, 33% and 77% induced changes in HLL and/or DS at day 7 and 21, respectively; only 10% influenced thyroid histology. These results showed that apical thyroid responsive endpoints HLL and DS are influenced by thyroid active chemicals as well as thyroid inactive chemical. Both endpoints should be combined with thyroid histology for the identification of thyroid active chemicals. The use of the AMA in a testing strategy to identify chemicals with thyroid activity is discussed.
    • Emergence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the Netherlands.

      Dekker, Margriet; Laverman, Gozewijn Dirk; de Vries, Ankje; Reimerink, Johan; Geeraedts, Felix (2019-01-01)
      Recently, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was detected in the Netherlands for the first time, in ticks collected in 2015 in the National Park Sallandse heuvelrug in response to the detection of anti-TBEV antibodies in roe deer. Hereafter, two human cases of autochthonous TBE have been reported, occurring in 2016. One case was geographically linked to the area of the previously reported ticks, which harbored a genetically divergent TBEV-Eu strain variant (TBEV-NL). So far these are the few reported events that point to endemic transmission of TBEV in the Netherlands and the true prevalence of TBEV and TBE disease in the Netherlands and its impact on the human population remains to be determined. We describe the third human case, identified in 2017, which geographically clusters with the aforementioned case and TBEV-positive ticks. We also describe the identification of another TBEV-NL-positive tick in the Netherlands, collected 2 years after the initial find in that same region (in 2017). These observations support the concept of continued circulation of TBEV-NL and the presence of a possible TBEV hot spot in the Sallandse Heuvelrug region.
    • Integrating Clinical and Epidemiological Data on Allergic Diseases Across Birth Cohorts: a MeDALL Harmonization Study.

      Benet, Marta; Albang, Richard; Pinart, Mariona; Hohmann, Cynthia; Tischer, Christina G; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Baïz, Nour; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Cirugeda, Lourdes; Eller, Esben; Fantini, Maria Pia; Gehring, Ulrike; Gerhard, Beatrix; Gori, Davide; Hallner, Eva; Kull, Inger; Lenzi, Jacopo; McEachan, Rosemary; Minina, Eleonora; Momas, Isabelle; Narduzzi, Silvia; Petherick, Emily S; Porta, Daniela; Rancière, Fanny; Standl, Marie; Torrent, Maties; Wijga, Alet H; Wright, John; Kogevinas, Manolis; Guerra, Stefano; Sunyer, Jordi; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Maier, Dieter; Anto, Josep M; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith (2018-10-22)
      International collaborations among birth cohorts to better understand asthma and allergies have increased in the last years. However, differences in definitions and methods preclude direct pooling of original individual participant data. We harmonized data from 14 birth cohorts, with three to 20 follow-ups, from nine European countries, as part of the Mechanisms of the Development of Asthma and Allergies (MeDALL) project. The harmonization process followed six steps: organization of the harmonization panel; identification of variables relevant to MeDALL objectives (candidate variables); proposal of a definition for each candidate variable (reference definition); assessment of the compatibility of each cohort variable to its reference definition (inferential equivalence) and classifications of this inferential equivalence as complete, partial, or impossible; workshop to agree on the reference definitions and classifications of inferential equivalence; and data preparation and delivery through a knowledge management portal. We agreed on 137 reference definitions. The inferential equivalence of 3,551 cohort variables to their corresponding reference definition was classified as complete, partial and impossible for 70%, 15% and 15% of the variables, respectively. A harmonized database was delivered. In birth cohorts of asthma and allergies, the harmonization of data for pooled analyses is feasible and may achieve high inferential comparability. The MeDALL harmonization approach can be used in other collaborative projects.
    • Phylogeographic analysis reveals multiple international transmission events have driven the global emergence of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

      Franz, Eelco; Rotariu, Ovidiu; Lopes, Bruno S; MacRae, Marion; Bono, James L; Laing, Chad; Gannon, Victor; Söderlund, Robert; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Friesema, Ingrid; French, Nigel P; George, Tessy; Biggs, Patrick J; Jaros, Patricia; Rivas, Marta; Chinen, Isabel; Campos, Josefina; Jernberg, Cecilia; Gobius, Kari; Mellor, Glen E; Chandry, P Scott; Perez-Reche, Francisco; Forbes, Ken J; Strachan, Norval J C (2018-10-29)
      Shiga toxin-producing Escherchia coli O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen which causes numerous food and waterborne disease outbreaks. It is globally distributed but its origin and temporal sequence of geographical spread is unknown.
    • Harvesting the wisdom of the crowd: using online ratings to explore care experiences in regions.

      Hendrikx, Roy J P; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Drewes, Hanneke W; Struijs, Jeroen N; Ruwaard, Dirk; Baan, Caroline A (2018-10-20)
      Regional population health management (PHM) initiatives need an understanding of regional patient experiences to improve their services. Websites that gather patient ratings have become common and could be a helpful tool in this effort. Therefore, this study explores whether unsolicited online ratings can provide insight into (differences in) patient's experiences at a (regional) population level.
    • The impact of influenza vaccination on infection, hospitalisation and mortality in the Netherlands between 2003 and 2015.

      Backer, J A; Wallinga, J; Meijer, A; Donker, G A; van der Hoek, W; van Boven, M (2018-10-11)
      Influenza epidemics annually cause substantial morbidity and mortality. For this reason, vaccination is offered yearly to persons with an elevated risk for complications. Assessments of the impact of vaccination are, however, hampered by year-to-year variation in epidemic size and vaccine effectiveness. We estimate the impact of the current vaccination programme comparing simulations with vaccination to counterfactual simulations without vaccination. The simulations rely on an age- and risk-structured transmission model that tracks the build-up and loss of immunity over successive seasons, and that allows the vaccine match to vary between seasons. The model parameters are estimated with a particle Monte Carlo method and approximate Bayesian computation, using epidemiological data on vaccine effectiveness and epidemic size in the Netherlands over a period of 11 years. The number of infections, hospitalisations and deaths vary greatly between years because waning of immunity and vaccine match may differ every season, which is in line with observed variation in influenza epidemic sizes. At an overall coverage of 21%, vaccination has averted on average 13% (7.2-19%, 95% range) of infections, 24% (16-36%) of hospitalisations, and 35% (16-50%) of deaths. This suggests that vaccination is mainly effective in protecting vaccinees from infection rather than reducing transmission. As the Dutch population continues to grow and age, the vaccination programme is projected (up to 2025) to gain in impact, despite a decreasing infection attack rate.
    • Global expansion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 4 shaped by colonial migration and local adaptation.

      Brynildsrud, Ola B; Pepperell, Caitlin S; Suffys, Philip; Grandjean, Louis; Monteserin, Johana; Debech, Nadia; Bohlin, Jon; Alfsnes, Kristian; Pettersson, John O-H; Kirkeleite, Ingerid; Fandinho, Fatima; da Silva, Marcia Aparecida; Perdigao, Joao; Portugal, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Clark, Taane; Caws, Maxine; Dunstan, Sarah; Thai, Phan Vuong Khac; Lopez, Beatriz; Ritacco, Viviana; Kitchen, Andrew; Brown, Tyler S; van Soolingen, Dick; O'Neill, Mary B; Holt, Kathryn E; Feil, Edward J; Mathema, Barun; Balloux, Francois; Eldholm, Vegard (2018-10)
      On the basis of population genomic and phylogeographic analyses of 1669 Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 4 (L4) genomes, we find that dispersal of L4 has been completely dominated by historical migrations out of Europe. We demonstrate an intimate temporal relationship between European colonial expansion into Africa and the Americas and the spread of L4 tuberculosis (TB). Markedly, in the age of antibiotics, mutations conferring antimicrobial resistance overwhelmingly emerged locally (at the level of nations), with minimal cross-border transmission of resistance. The latter finding was found to reflect the relatively recent emergence of these mutations, as a similar degree of local restriction was observed for susceptible variants emerging on comparable time scales. The restricted international transmission of drug-resistant TB suggests that containment efforts at the level of individual countries could be successful.
    • Effectiveness of diabetes self-management education via a smartphone application in insulin treated type 2 diabetes patients - design of a randomised controlled trial ('TRIGGER study').

      Boels, Anne Meike; Rutten, Guy; Zuithoff, Nicolaas; de Wit, Ardine; Vos, Rimke (2018-10-22)
      Health care providers aim to stimulate self-management in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. However, they have a limited number of patient contacts to do this. With the growing number of T2DM patients, innovative and cost-effective interventions to promote self-management are needed. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education via a smartphone app in T2DM patients on insulin therapy.
    • The incidence of symptomatic infection with influenza virus in the Netherlands 2011/2012 through 2016/2017, estimated using Bayesian evidence synthesis.

      Teirlinck, A C; de Gier, B; Meijer, A; Donker, G; de Lange, M; Koppeschaar, C; van der Hoek, W; Kretzschmar, M E; McDonald, S A (2018-10-23)
      Due to differences in the circulation of influenza viruses, distribution and antigenic drift of A subtypes and B lineages, and susceptibility to infection in the population, the incidence of symptomatic influenza infection can vary widely between seasons and age-groups. Our goal was to estimate the symptomatic infection incidence in the Netherlands for the six seasons 2011/2012 through 2016/2017, using Bayesian evidence synthesis methodology to combine season-specific sentinel surveillance data on influenza-like illness (ILI), virus detections in sampled ILI cases and data on healthcare-seeking behaviour. Estimated age-aggregated incidence was 6.5 per 1000 persons (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 4.7-9.0) for season 2011/2012, 36.7 (95% UI: 31.2-42.8) for 2012/2013, 9.1 (95% UI: 6.3-12.9) for 2013/2014, 41.1 (95% UI: 35.0-47.7) for 2014/2015, 39.4 (95% UI: 33.4-46.1) for 2015/2016 and 27.8 (95% UI: 22.7-33.7) for season 2016/2017. Incidence varied substantially between age-groups (highest for the age-group <5 years: 23 to 47/1000, but relatively low for 65+ years: 2 to 34/1000 over the six seasons). Integration of all relevant data sources within an evidence synthesis framework has allowed the estimation - with appropriately quantified uncertainty - of the incidence of symptomatic influenza virus infection. These estimates provide valuable insight into the variation in influenza epidemics across seasons, by virus subtype and lineage, and between age-groups.
    • Inhibiting ex-vivo Th17 responses in Ankylosing Spondylitis by targeting Janus kinases.

      Hammitzsch, Ariane; Chen, Liye; de Wit, Jelle; Al-Mossawi, M Hussein; Ridley, Anna; Sekine, Takuya; Simone, Davide; Doig, Karen; Skapenko, Alla; Bowness, Paul (2018-10-23)
      Treatment options for Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) are still limited. The T helper cell 17 (Th17) pathway has emerged as a major driver of disease pathogenesis and a good treatment target. Janus kinases (JAK) are key transducers of cytokine signals in Th17 cells and therefore promising targets for the treatment of AS. Here we investigate the therapeutic potential of four different JAK inhibitors on cells derived from AS patients and healthy controls, cultured in-vitro under Th17-promoting conditions. Levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, GM-CSF and IFNγ were assessed by ELISA and inhibitory effects were investigated with Phosphoflow. JAK1/2/3 and TYK2 were silenced in CD4+ T cells with siRNA and effects analyzed by ELISA (IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22), Western Blot, qPCR and Phosphoflow. In-vitro inhibition of CD4+ T lymphocyte production of multiple Th17 cytokines (IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22) was achieved with JAK inhibitors of differing specificity, as well as by silencing of JAK1-3 and Tyk2, without impacting on cell viability or proliferation. Our preclinical data suggest JAK inhibitors as promising candidates for therapeutic trials in AS, since they can inhibit multiple Th17 cytokines simultaneously. Improved targeting of TYK2 or other JAK isoforms may confer tailored effects on Th17 responses in AS.
    • Tick-borne pathogens in Finland: comparison of Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus in sympatric and parapatric areas.

      Laaksonen, Maija; Klemola, Tero; Feuth, Eeva; Sormunen, Jani J; Puisto, Anna; Mäkelä, Satu; Penttinen, Ritva; Ruohomäki, Kai; Hänninen, Jari; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Sprong, Hein; Hytönen, Jukka; Vesterinen, Eero J (2018-10-24)
      Almost 3500 tick samples, originally collected via a nationwide citizen science campaign in 2015, were screened to reveal the prevalence and distribution of a wide spectrum of established and putative tick-borne pathogens vectored by Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus in Finland. The unique geographical distribution of these two tick species in Finland allowed us to compare pathogen occurrence between an I. ricinus-dominated area (southern Finland), an I. persulcatus-dominated area (northern Finland), and a sympatric area (central Finland).
    • Effect of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive disease in older adults of 10 European countries: implications for adult vaccination.

      Hanquet, Germaine; Krizova, Pavla; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Ladhani, Shamez N; Nuorti, J Pekka; Lepoutre, Agnes; Mereckiene, Jolita; Knol, Mirjam; Winje, Brita A; Ciruela, Pilar; Ordobas, Maria; Guevara, Marcela; McDonald, Eisin; Morfeldt, Eva; Kozakova, Jana; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Fry, Norman K; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Varon, Emmanuelle; Corcoran, Mary; van der Ende, Arie; Vestrheim, Didrik F; Munoz-Almagro, Carmen; Latasa, Pello; Castilla, Jesus; Smith, Andrew; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Whittaker, Robert; Pastore Celentano, Lucia; Savulescu, Camelia (2018-10-24)
      Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have the potential to prevent pneumococcal disease through direct and indirect protection. This multicentre European study estimated the indirect effects of 5-year childhood PCV10 and/or PCV13 programmes on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in older adults across 13 sites in 10 European countries, to support decision-making on pneumococcal vaccination policies.