• Comorbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus: impact on medical health care utilization.

      Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline A; Schellevis, Francois G; Westert, Gert P; Bos, Geertrudis A M van den (2006)
      BACKGROUND: Comorbidity has been shown to intensify health care utilization and to increase medical care costs for patients with diabetes. However, most studies have been focused on one health care service, mainly hospital care, or limited their analyses to one additional comorbid disease, or the data were based on self-reported questionnaires instead of health care registration data. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects a broad spectrum of of comorbidities on the type and volume of medical health care utilization of patients with diabetes. METHODS: By linking general practice and hospital based registrations in the Netherlands, data on comorbidity and health care utilization of patients with diabetes (n = 7,499) were obtained. Comorbidity was defined as diabetes-related comorbiiabetes-related comorbidity. Multilevel regression analyses were applied to estimate the effects of comorbidity on health care utilization. RESULTS: Our results show that both diabetes-related and non diabetes-related comorbidity increase the use of medical care substantially in patients with diabetes. Having both diabeterelated and non diabetes-related comorbidity incrases the demand for health care even more. Differences in health care utilization patterns were observed between the comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Non diabetes-related comorbidity increases the health care demand as much as diabetes-related comorbidity. Current single-disease approach of integrated diabetes care should be extended with additional care modules, which must be generic and include multiple diseases in order to meet the complex health care demands of patients with diabetes in the future.
    • Comparing the Health of Populations: Methods to Evaluate and Tailor Population Management Initiatives in the Netherlands.

      Hendrikx, Roy J P; Drewes, Hanneke W; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Ruwaard, Dirk; Baan, Caroline A (2017-11-01)
      Health care no longer focuses solely on patients and increasingly emphasizes regions and their populations. Strategies, such as population management (PM) initiatives, aim to improve population health and well-being by redesigning health care and community services. Hence, insight into population health is needed to tailor interventions and evaluate their effects. This study aims to assess whether population health differs between initiatives and to what extent demographic, personal, and lifestyle factors affect these differences. A population health survey that included the Short Form 12 version 2 (SF12, physical and mental health status), Patient Activation Measure 13 (PAM13), and demographic, personal, and lifestyle factors was administered in 9 Dutch PM initiatives. Potential confounders were determined by comparing these factors between PM initiatives using analyses of variance and chi-square tests. The influence of these potential confounders on the health outcomes was studied using multivariate linear regression. Age, education, origin, employment, body mass index, and smoking were identified as potential confounders for differences found between the 9 PM initiatives. Each had a noteworthy influence on all of the instruments' scores. Not all health differences between PM initiatives were explained, as the SF12 outcomes still differed between PM initiatives once corrected. For the PAM13, the differences were no longer significant. Demographic and lifestyle factors should be included in the evaluation of PM initiatives and population health differences found can be used to tailor initiatives. Other factors beyond health care (eg, air quality) should be considered to further refine the tailoring and evaluation of PM initiatives.
    • Does an in-house internist at a GP practice result in reduced referrals to hospital-based specialist care?

      Quanjel, Tessa C C; Winkens, Anne; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Struijs, Jeroen N; Winkens, Ron A G; Baan, Caroline A; Ruwaard, Dirk (2018-01-28)
      Consistent evidence on the effects of specialist services in the primary care setting is lacking. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of an in-house internist at a GP practice on the number of referrals to specialist care in the hospital setting. Additionally, the involved GPs and internist were asked to share their experiences with the intervention.
    • Evaluating a Dutch cardiology primary care plus intervention on the Triple Aim outcomes: study design of a practice-based quantitative and qualitative research.

      Quanjel, Tessa C C; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline A; Ruwaard, Dirk (2017-09-06)
      In an attempt to deal with the pressures on the health-care system and to guarantee sustainability, changes are needed. This study focuses on a cardiology primary care plus intervention. Primary care plus (PC+) is a new health-care delivery model focused on substitution of specialist care in the hospital setting with specialist care in the primary care setting. The intervention consists of a cardiology PC+ centre in which cardiologists, supported by other health-care professionals, provide consultations in a primary care setting. The PC+ centre aims to improve the health of the population and quality of care as experienced by patients, and reduce the number of referrals to hospital-based outpatient specialist care in order to reduce health-care costs. These aims reflect the Triple Aim principle. Hence, the objectives of the study are to evaluate the cardiology PC+ centre in terms of the Triple Aim outcomes and to evaluate the process of the introduction of PC+.
    • Harvesting the wisdom of the crowd: using online ratings to explore care experiences in regions.

      Hendrikx, Roy J P; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Drewes, Hanneke W; Struijs, Jeroen N; Ruwaard, Dirk; Baan, Caroline A (2018-10-20)
      Regional population health management (PHM) initiatives need an understanding of regional patient experiences to improve their services. Websites that gather patient ratings have become common and could be a helpful tool in this effort. Therefore, this study explores whether unsolicited online ratings can provide insight into (differences in) patient's experiences at a (regional) population level.
    • How Can Autonomy Be Maintained and Informal Care Improved for People With Dementia Living in Residential Care Facilities: A Systematic Literature Review.

      Boumans, Jogé; van Boekel, Leonieke C; Baan, Caroline A; Luijkx, Katrien G (2018-09-15)
      For people with dementia living in residential care facilities, maintaining autonomy and receiving informal care are important. The objective of this review is to understand how caregiving approaches and physical environment, including technologies contribute to the maintenance of autonomy and informal care provision for this population.
    • How to Measure Population Health: An Exploration Toward an Integration of Valid and Reliable Instruments.

      Hendrikx, Roy J P; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Drewes, Hanneke W; Ruwaard, Dirk; Baan, Caroline A (2017-12-06)
      Population health management initiatives are introduced to transform health and community services by implementing interventions that combine various services and address the continuum of health and well-being of populations. Insight is required into a population's health to evaluate implementation of these initiatives. This study aims to determine the performance of commonly used instruments for measuring a population's experienced health and explores the assessed concepts of population health. Survey-based Short Form 12, version 2 (SF12, health status), Patient Activation Measure 13 (PAM13), and Kessler 10 (K10, psychological distress) data of 3120 respondents was used. Floor/ceiling effects were studied using descriptive statistics. Validity was assessed using factor and discriminant analyses, and reliability was assessed using Cronbach α. Finally, to study covered concepts, exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) were conducted, which included additional surveyed characteristics. The SF12 and PAM13 sum scores showed acceptable averages and distributions, while results of the K10 indicated a floor effect. SF12 and K10 measured their expected constructs, while PAM13 did not. The EFA of PAM13 displayed 1 instead of the expected 4 constructs. Reliability was good for all instruments (α 0.89-0.93). The overall EFA identified 4 concepts: mental, physical ability, lifestyle, and self-management. SF12 and PAM13, combined with lifestyle characteristics, are shown to provide insightful information to measure the physical, mental, lifestyle, and self-management concepts of population health. Future research should include additional instruments that cover new aspects introduced by recent definitions of health.
    • Improving early detection initiatives: a qualitative study exploring perspectives of older people and professionals.

      Lette, Manon; Stoop, Annerieke; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Buist, Yvette; Baan, Caroline A; de Bruin, Simone R (2017-06-23)
      A wide range of initiatives on early detection and intervention have been developed to proactively identify problems related to health and wellbeing in (frail) older people, with the aim of supporting them to live independently for as long as possible. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what the best way is to design such initiatives and how older people's needs and preferences can be best addressed. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature by exploring: 1) older people's perspectives on health and living environment in relation to living independently at home; 2) older people's needs and preferences in relation to initiating and receiving care and support; and 3) professionals' views on what would be necessary to enable the alignment of early detection initiatives with older people's own needs and preferences.
    • Lifestyle Interventions Are Cost-Effective in People With Different Levels of Diabetes Risk: Results from a modeling study.

      Jacobs-van der Bruggen, Monique A M; Bos, Griët; Bemelmans, Wanda J; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Vijgen, Sylvia M; Baan, Caroline A (2007-01-01)
      OBJECTIVE: In the current study we explore the long-term health benefits and cost-effectiveness of both a community-based lifestyle program for the general population (community intervention) and an intensive lifestyle intervention for obese adults, implemented in a health care setting (health care intervention). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Short-term intervention effects on BMI and physical activity were estimated from the international literature. The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment Chronic Diseases Model was used to project lifetime health effects and effects on health care costs for minimum and maximum estimates of short-term intervention effects. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated from a health care perspective and included intervention costs and related and unrelated medical costs. Effects and costs were discounted at 1.5 and 4.0% annually. RESULTS: One new case of diabetes per 20 years was prevented for every 7-30 participants in the health care intervention and for every 300-1,500 adults in the community intervention. Intervention costs needed to prevent one new case of diabetes (per 20 years) were lower for the community intervention (euro2,000-9,000) than for the health care intervention (euro5,000-21,000). The cost-effectiveness ratios were euro3,100-3,900 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for the community intervention and euro3,900-5,500 per QALY for the health care intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Health care interventions for high-risk groups and community-based lifestyle interventions targeted to the general population (low risk) are both cost-effective ways of curbing the growing burden of diabetes.
    • Shifting hospital care to primary care: An evaluation of cardiology care in a primary care setting in the Netherlands.

      Quanjel, Tessa C C; Struijs, Jeroen N; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Baan, Caroline A; Ruwaard, Dirk (2018-05-09)
      In an attempt to deal with the pressures on the healthcare system and to guarantee sustainability, changes are needed. This study is focused on a cardiology Primary Care Plus intervention in which cardiologists provide consultations with patients in a primary care setting in order to prevent unnecessary referrals to the hospital. This study explores which patients with non-acute and low-complexity cardiology-related health complaints should be excluded from Primary Care Plus and referred directly to specialist care in the hospital.
    • Unraveling the drivers of regional variation in healthcare spending by analyzing prevalent chronic diseases.

      de Vries, Eline F; Heijink, Richard; Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline A (2018-05-03)
      To indicate inefficiencies in health systems, previous studies examined regional variation in healthcare spending by analyzing the entire population. As a result, population heterogeneity is taken into account to a limited extent only. Furthermore, it clouds a detailed interpretation which could be used to inform regional budget allocation decisions to improve quality of care of one chronic disease over another. Therefore, we aimed to gain insight into the drivers of regional variation in healthcare spending by studying prevalent chronic diseases.