• The interactive effects of diclofop-methyl and silver nanoparticles on Arabidopsis thaliana: Growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant system.

      Li, Xingxing; Ke, Mingjing; Zhang, Meng; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Fan, Xiaoji; Xu, Jiahui; Zhang, Zhenyan; Lu, Tao; Fu, Zhengwei; Qian, Haifeng (2018-01)
      Diclofop-methyl (DM), a common post-emergence herbicide, is frequently used in agricultural production. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used nanoparticles, and as such, have been detected and monitored in several environmental systems. Here we investigated the interactive effects of DM and AgNPs on the physiological morphology, photosynthesis and antioxidant system of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results demonstrated that a 1.0 mg/L DM treatment had no significant effect on the fresh weight of plant shoots and the content of total chlorophyll and anthocyanin. However, a 0.5 mg/L AgNPs treatment was found to significantly inhibit plant growth and chlorophyll synthesis, and was found to cause more severe oxidative damage in plants compared to the effects observed in a hydroponic suspension in which DM and AgNPs were jointly present. Meanwhile, the relative transcript levels of photosynthesis related genes (psbA, rbcL, pgrl1A and pgrl1B) in the combined group were found to be slightly increased compared to transcript levels in the AgNPs group, in order to maintain ATP generation at relatively normal levels in order to repair light damage. One explanation for these observed antagonistic effects was that the existence of DM affects the stability of AgNPs and reduced Ag+ release from AgNPs in the mixed solution. Thereupon, the Ag+-content was found to decrease in shoots and roots in the combined group by 15.2% and 9.4% respectively, compared to the AgNPs group. The coexistence of herbicides and nanomaterials in aquatic environments or soil systems will continue to exist due to their wide usages. Our current study highlights that the antagonistic effects between DM and AgNPs exerted a positive impact on A. thaliana growth.
    • Multiwall carbon nanotubes modulate paraquat toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

      Fan, Xiaoji; Xu, Jiahui; Lavoie, Michel; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Zhu, Youchao; Lu, Tao; Fu, Zhengwei; Zhu, Tingheng; Qian, Haifeng (2018-02)
      Carbon nanotubes can be either toxic or beneficial to plant growth and can also modulate toxicity of organic contaminants through surface sorption. The complex interacting toxic effects of carbon nanotubes and organic contaminants in plants have received little attention in the literature to date. In this study, the toxicity of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 50 mg/L) and paraquat (MV, 0.82 mg/L), separately or in combination, were evaluated at the physiological and the proteomic level in Arabidopsis thaliana for 7-14 days. The results revealed that the exposure to MWCNT had no inhibitory effect on the growth of shoots and leaves. Rather, MWCNT stimulated the relative electron transport rate and the effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII value as compared to the control by around 12% and lateral root production up to nearly 4-fold as compared to the control. The protective effect of MWCNT on MV toxicity on the root surface area could be quantitatively explained by the extent of MV adsorption on MWCNT and was related to stimulation of photosynthesis, antioxidant protection and number and area of lateral roots which in turn helped nutrient assimilation. The influence of MWCNT and MV on photosynthesis and oxidative stress at the physiological level was consistent with the proteomics analysis, with various over-expressed photosynthesis-related proteins (by more than 2 folds) and various under-expressed oxidative stress related proteins (by about 2-3 folds). This study brings new insights into the interactive effects of two xenobiotics (MWCNT and MV) on the physiology of a model plant.