Browsing Articles and other publications by RIVM employees by Authors
Biowaiver Monograph for Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Ondansetron.Rajawat, Gopal Singh; Belubbi, Tejashree; Nagarsenker, Mangal S; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, Dirk W; Langguth, Peter; Parr, Alan; Polli, James E; Mehta, Mehul; et al. (2019-06-08)Literature data pertaining to the physicochemical, pharmaceutical, and pharmacokinetic properties of ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate are reviewed to arrive at a decision on whether a marketing authorization of an immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage form can be approved based on a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)-based biowaiver. Ondansetron, a 5HT3 receptor antagonist, is used at doses ranging from 4 mg to 24 mg in the management of nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and postoperative treatment. It is a weak base and thus exhibits pH-dependent solubility. However, it is able to meet the criteria of "high solubility" as well as "high permeability" and can therefore be classified as a BCS class I drug. Furthermore, ondansetron hydrochloride 8 mg IR tablets (Zofran® 8 mg) and multiples thereof (16 mg = Zofran® 8 mg × 2 tablets and 24 mg = Zofran® 8 mg × 3 tablets) meet the criteria of "rapidly dissolving" in dissolution testing. Ondansetron hydrochloride has a wide therapeutic window and is well-tolerated after oral administration. Based on its favorable physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic data and the minimal risks associated with an incorrect bioequivalence decision, the BCS-based biowaiver procedure can be recommended for ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate IR tablets.
Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Proguanil Hydrochloride.Plöger, Gerlinde F; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D I R K W; Langguth, Peter; Mehta, Mehul U; Parr, Alan; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Tajiri, Tomokazu; et al. (2018-03-20)Literature data relevant to the decision to waive in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of generic immediate release solid oral dosage forms of proguanil hydrochloride are reviewed. To clarify the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classification, experimental solubility and dissolution studies were also carried out. The antimalarial proguanil hydrochloride, effective via the parent compound proguanil and the metabolite cycloguanil, is not considered to be a narrow therapeutic index drug. Proguanil hydrochloride salt was shown to be highly soluble according to the FDA, WHO and EMA guidelines, but data for permeability are inconclusive. Therefore, proguanil hydrochloride is conservatively classified as a BCS Class 3 substance. In view of this information and the assessment of risks associated with a false positive decision, a BCS-based biowaiver approval procedure can be recommended for orally administered solid IR products containing proguanil hydrochloride, provided well-known excipients are used in usual amounts and provided the in vitro dissolution of the test and reference products is very rapid (85% or more are dissolved in 15 minutes at pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8) and is performed according to the current requirements for BCS-based biowaivers.
Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Folic Acid.Hofsäss, Martin A; Souza, Jacqueline de; Silva-Barcellos, Neila M; Bellavinha, Karime R; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D W; Parr, Alan; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; et al. (2017-12)This work presents a review of literature and experimental data relevant to the possibility of waiving pharmacokinetic bioequivalence studies in human volunteers for approval of immediate-release solid oral pharmaceutical forms containing folic acid as the single active pharmaceutical ingredient. For dosage forms containing 5 mg folic acid, the highest dose strength on the World Health Organization Essential Medicines List, the dose/solubility ratio calculated from solubility studies was higher than 250 mL, corresponding to a classification as "not highly soluble." Small, physiological doses of folic acid (≤320 μg) seem to be absorbed completely via active transport, but permeability data for higher doses of 1-5 mg are inconclusive. Following a conservative approach, folic acid is classified as a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class IV compound until more reliable data become available. Commensurate with its solubility characteristics, the results of dissolution studies indicated that none of the folic acid products evaluated showed rapid dissolution in media at pH 1.2 or 4.5. Therefore, according to the current criteria of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, the biowaiver approval procedure cannot be recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing folic acid.