• Cigarette Design Features: Effects on Emission Levels, User Perception, and Behavior.

      Talhout, Reinskje; Richter, Patricia A; Stepanov, Irina; Watson, Christina V; Watson, Clifford H (2018-01)
      This paper describes the effects of non-tobacco, physical cigarette design features on smoke emissions, product appeal, and smoking behaviors - 3 factors that determine smoker's exposure and related health risks.
    • Cigarette Filter Ventilation and Smoking Protocol Influence Aldehyde Smoke Yields.

      Pauwels, Charlotte G G M; Klerx, Walther N M; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Boots, Agnes W; van Schooten, Frederik J; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Talhout, Reinskje (2018-06-18)
      The WHO study group on tobacco product regulation (TobReg) advised regulating and lowering toxicant levels in cigarette smoke. Aldehydes are one of the chemical classes on the TobReg smoke toxicants priority list. To provide insight in factors determining aldehyde yields, the levels of 12 aldehydes in mainstream cigarette smoke of 11 Dutch brands were quantified. Variations in smoking behavior and cigarette design affecting human exposure to aldehydes were studied by using four different machine testing protocols. Machine smoking was based on the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and Health Canada Intense (HCI) regime, both with and without taping the filter vents. The 11 cigarette brands differed in (i) design and blend characteristics; (ii) tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (TNCO) levels; (iii) popularity; and (iv) manufacturer. Cigarette smoke was trapped on a Cambridge filter pad and carboxen cartridge. After being dissolved in methanol/CS2 and derivatization with DNPH, the aldehyde yields were determined using HPLC-DAD. Using an intense smoking regime (increased puff volume, shorter puff interval) significantly increased aldehyde yields, following the pattern: ISO < ISO-taped < HCI-untaped < HCI. For all of the regimes, acetaldehyde and acrolein yields were strongly correlated ( r = 0.804). The difference in TNCO and aldehyde levels between regular and highly ventilated low-TNCO cigarettes (as measured using ISO) diminished when smoking intensely; this effect is stronger when combined with taping filter vents. The highly ventilated low-TNCO brands showed six times more aldehyde production per mg nicotine for the intense smoking regimes. In conclusion, acetaldehyde and acrolein can be used as representatives for the class of volatile aldehydes for the different brands and smoking regimes. The aldehyde-to-nicotine ratio increased when highly ventilated cigarettes were smoked intensely, similar to real smokers. Thus, a smoker of highly ventilated low-TNCO cigarettes has an increased potential for higher aldehyde exposures compared to a smoker of regular cigarettes.
    • A Deliberate Choice? Exploring the Decision to Switch from Cigarettes to E-Cigarettes.

      Romijnders, Kim A G J; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Talhout, Reinskje (2019-02-20)
      E-cigarettes are increasingly popular among both cigarette smokers and non-users. Although smoking cessation yields the most individual and population health benefits, switching to exclusive e-cigarette use offers some individual health benefits for cigarette smokers. However, e-cigarette use is not harmless, and its use among non-cigarette smokers should be prevented. Our study aims to explore the decision-making process about e-cigarettes among an e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and non-users. We conducted 12 semi-structured focus group interviews with e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and non-users. We performed a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts. First, knowledge reported by e-cigarette users was mainly based on other users' experiences. Second, cigarette smokers and non-users were more negative towards e-cigarettes than e-cigarette users. Third, e-cigarette users considered switching from cigarette smoking to e-cigarette use by deliberating relevant information, and weighing up the benefits and disadvantages of e-cigarette use versus smoking. Additionally, important factors in the decision-making process were a perception of risks and benefits of e-cigarettes compared to cigarettes, a supportive social environment about e-cigarette use, and trust in information offered about the risks and benefits of e-cigarettes. Our findings provide insight into what we can learn from the conscious decision-making process of e-cigarette users who switched from cigarettes to e-cigarettes. This information can be considered to develop targeted communications strategies to stimulate a conscious decision-making process, these may highlight benefits of switching to e-cigarettes for cigarette smokers, discussing the risks of smoking, and correcting misperceptions about the perceived risks and benefits of e-cigarette use.
    • An E-liquid Flavor Wheel: A Shared Vocabulary based on Systematically Reviewing E-liquid Flavor Classifications in Literature.

      Krüsemann, Erna Johanna Zegerina; Boesveldt, Sanne; de Graaf, Kees; Talhout, Reinskje (2018-05-18)
      E-liquids are available in a high variety of flavors. A systematic classification of e-liquid flavors is necessary to increase comparability of research results. In the food, alcohol and fragrance industry, flavors are classified using flavor wheels. We systematically reviewed literature on flavors related to e-cigarette use, to investigate how e-liquid flavors have been classified in research, and propose an e-liquid flavor wheel to classify e-liquids based on marketing descriptions.
    • Effect of Adding Sugar to Burley Tobacco on the Emission of Aldehydes in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke

      Cheah, Nuan Ping; Borst, Simon; Hendrickx, Loes; Cremers, Hans; Jansen, Eugene; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Talhout, Reinskje (2018-03-01)
    • The Health Risks of Electronic Cigarette Use to Bystanders.

      Visser, Wouter F; Klerx, Walther N; Cremers, Hans W J M; Ramlal, Ramon; Schwillens, Paul L; Talhout, Reinskje (2019-04-30)
    • New Tobacco and Tobacco-Related Products: Early Detection of Product Development, Marketing Strategies, and Consumer Interest.

      Staal, Yvonne Cm; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Havermans, Anne; Talhout, Reinskje (2018-05-28)
      A wide variety of new tobacco and tobacco-related products have emerged on the market in recent years.
    • Perceptions and Reasons Regarding E-Cigarette Use among Users and Non-Users: A Narrative Literature Review.

      Romijnders, Kim A G J; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Talhout, Reinskje (2018-06-06)
      This paper aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the attractiveness of e-cigarettes for several different groups. For this purpose, perceptions of and reasons for e-cigarette use were systematically reviewed as reported by e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, dual users, and non-users, among both adults and youth. MEDLINE® and Scopus were used to search for relevant articles, and references of included studies were also investigated. Two reviewers screened all titles and abstracts independently, blinded to authors and journal titles (Cohen’s Kappa = 0.83), resulting in 72 eligible articles. Risk perceptions, perceived benefits, and reasons for e-cigarette use were categorized in themes and sub-themes. Risk perceptions included harmfulness in general, and specific health risks. Perceived benefits included improved taste and smell, and safety for bystanders. Reasons for use included (health) benefits, curiosity, smoking cessation, and friends using e-cigarettes. The findings highlight that there is a variety of perceptions and reasons mentioned by adult and youth e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, dual users, and non-users. As such, this overview provides valuable information for scientists, public health professionals, behavior change experts, and regulators to improve future research, risk communication, and possibilities to effectively regulate e-cigarettes.
    • Sensory analysis of characterising flavours: evaluating tobacco product odours using an expert panel.

      Krüsemann, Erna J Z; Lasschuijt, Marlou P; de Graaf, C; de Wijk, René A; Punter, Pieter H; van Tiel, Loes; Cremers, Johannes W J M; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Boesveldt, Sanne; Talhout, Reinskje (2018-05-23)
      Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines characterising flavour as 'a clearly noticeable smell or taste other than one of tobacco […]'. To distinguish between products with and without a characterising flavour, we trained an expert panel to identify characterising flavours by smelling.
    • Stability and Concentrations of Humectants in Tobacco

      Cremers, Hans; Talhout, Reinskje; Jansen, Eugene; Ramlal, Ramon (2017)