• Optimizing the performance of conventional water treatment system using quantitative microbial risk assessment, Tehran, Iran.

      Hadi, Mahdi; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Yunesian, Masud; Nasseri, Simin; Nodehi, Ramin Nabizadeh; Smeets, Patrick W M H; Schijven, Jack; Tashauoei, Hamidreza; Jalilzadeh, Esfandiar (2019-10-01)
      The performance of conventional drinking water treatment plants (WTPs) can be improved using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). A QMRA study on Cryptosporidium using actual pathogen density was conducted to examine the performance of Jalaliyeh WTP in Tehran, Iran. The infection risk and the burden of disease attributed to the parasite presence in finished water were estimated incorporating physical and chemical log reduction values (LRVs), using stochastic modeling and disinfection profiling. The risk and burden of disease were compared with health-based targets, i.e. one case of infection per 10,000 people or 10-6 DALYs per person per year. The parasite's LRVs were 2.31 and 0.034 log provided by physico-chemical treatment and disinfection processes, respectively. The mean of estimated risk (111 cases per 104 people per year) and the burden of disease (11.7 DALYs per 106 people per year) both exceeded the targets. To control the excess risk, three QMRA-based disinfection scenarios were examined including: (1) employing chlorine dioxide (ClO2) instead of chlorine (2) ozonation with a concentration of 0.75 mg/L (Ct = 22.5 min mg/L) and (3) UV irradiation with a dose of 10 mJ/cm2. The LRV of parasite may be increased to 3.0, 5.1 and 4.9 log by employing ClO2, ozonation and UV irradiation, respectively. The use of ozone or UV as alternative disinfectants, could enhance the disinfection efficacy and provide sufficient additional treatment against the excess risk of parasite. QMRA could make it easier applying appropriate improvement to conventional WTPs in order to increase the system performance in terms of health-based measures.