• Optimizing molecular surveillance of mumps genotype G viruses.

      Bodewes, Rogier; van Rooijen, Kristel; Cremer, Jeroen; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; van Binnendijk, Rob (2019-04-01)
      Mumps viruses continue to cause sporadic cases and outbreaks in countries with a high vaccination coverage for mumps. Molecular surveillance of mumps viruses can be supportive to elucidate the origin and transmission routes of mumps virus in case of an outbreak. Currently, molecular surveillance is worldwide primarily focused on sequencing of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene. However, few studies have already shown that additional genes or regions contribute to the resolution of the sequence data in such a way that mumps cases that seem to be linked to the same source on basis of the SH sequence, appear to be linked to another source or chain of transmission. Notably, this sequence information was recently extracted from the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes (total 3364 nucleotides), or from the sum of the three non-coding regions (NCRs; total 1954 nt) between the nucleocapsid protein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein and F protein, but also from the complete genome. Here, sequence data from NCRs were compared with that of the HN and F gene, using mumps genotype G viruses detected in the Netherlands between 2010 and 2018. Results of this study indicate that NCRs sequence data provided similar or slightly better sequence resolution compared to the HN and F genes for most viruses. For molecular surveillance of currently circulating mumps genotype G viruses is sequencing of SH in combination with NCRs currently a useful approach.