• Acarological Risk of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Infections Across Space and Time in The Netherlands.

      Takken, Willem; van Vliet, Arnold J H; Verhulst, Niels O; Jacobs, Frans H H; Gassner, Fedor; Hartemink, Nienke; Mulder, Sara; Sprong, Hein (2017)
      A longitudinal investigation on tick populations and their Borrelia infections in the Netherlands was undertaken between 2006 and 2011 with the aim to assess spatial and temporal patterns of the acarological risk in forested sites across the country and to assess variations in Borrelia genospecies diversity. Ticks were collected monthly in 11 sites and nymphs were examined for Borrelia infections. Tick populations expressed strong seasonal variations, with consistent and significant differences in mean tick densities between sites. Borrelia infections were present in all study sites, with a site-specific mean prevalence per month ranging from 7% to 26%. Prevalence was location-dependent and was not associated with tick densities. Mean Borrelia prevalence was lowest in January (4%), gradually increasing to reach a maximum (24%) in August. Borrelia afzelii represented 70% of all infections, with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana represented with 4%, 8%, and 10%, respectively. The density of infected nymphs and the proportional distribution of the four Borrelia genospecies, were significantly different between sites. The results show a consistent and significant spatial and temporal difference in acarological risk across the Netherlands.
    • Influence of adjuvant formulation on inducing immune response in mice immunized with a recombinant serpin from Trichinella spiralis.

      Xu, J; Bai, X; Wang, L B; Shi, H N; van der Giessen, J W B; Boireau, P; Liu, M Y; Liu, X L (2017-07)
      Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are one of the most widespread zoonotic pathogens on the world, and they can still cause major public health problems in many parts of the world. Vaccination against the helminth nematode Trichinella could be a good strategy to reduce the risk of human and animal infection. It was our aim to evaluate three adjuvants, which could be used as an efficient vaccine for animals in combination with rTs-Serpin antigen. In this study, BALB/c mice were vaccinated by an intramuscular route with rTs-Serpin antigen from the parasite Trichinella spiralis in combination with three different adjuvant formulations: Montanide ISA201, Montanide IMS 1313 N PR VG and Freund's complete adjuvant/Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FCA/FIA). The dynamics of IgG, IgM, IgE and cytokine production from spleen cells and worm reduction rate of the vaccinated mice were analysed. The results showed that rTs-serpin can induce partial protection against Trichinella larvae challenge in mice, when compared to the FCA-/FIA-formulated vaccination, the IMS1313 plus rTs-serpin mixture showed higher humoral immunity and similar levels of cellular immunity and worm reduction rate. The study suggested that Montanide IMS nanoparticles 1313 are as effective as FCA but less toxic; thus, Montanide IMS nanoparticles 1313 can be used as a good candidate of adjuvant for developing vaccine against Trichinella spiralis.