• Adhering to a national surgical care bundle reduces the risk of surgical site infections.

      Koek, Mayke B G; Hopmans, Titia E M; Soetens, Loes C; Wille, Jan C; Geerlings, Suzanne E; Vos, Margreet C; van Benthem, Birgit H B; de Greeff, Sabine C (2017)
      In 2008, a bundle of care to prevent Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) was introduced in the Netherlands. The bundle consisted of four elements: antibiotic prophylaxis according to local guidelines, no hair removal, normothermia and 'hygiene discipline' in the operating room (i.e. number of door movements). Dutch hospitals were advised to implement the bundle and to measure the outcome. This study's goal was to assess how effective the bundle was in reducing SSI risk.
    • Impact of Survey Administration Mode on the Results of a Health-Related Discrete Choice Experiment: Online and Paper Comparison.

      Determann, Domino; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Steyerberg, Ewout W; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; de Wit, G Ardine (2018-01-04)
      Electronic data collection is increasingly being used for discrete choice experiments (DCEs).
    • Influence of vitamin D on key bacterial taxa in infant microbiota in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

      Talsness, Chris E; Penders, John; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Damoiseaux, Jan; Thijs, Carel; Mommers, Monique (2017)
      Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties giving it the potential to affect microbial colonization of the intestinal tract. We investigated whether maternal vitamin D supplemention, maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, or direct supplementation of the infant influences key bacterial taxa within microbiota of one month old infants. Infant and maternal vitamin D supplement use was ascertained via questionnaires. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was determined at approximately the 36th week of pregnancy. In 913 one month old infants in the prospective KOALA Birth Cohort Study, fecal Bifidobacterium spp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Bacteroides fragilis group, Lactobacillus spp. and total bacteria were quantified with real-time polymerase chain reaction assays targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences. The association between vitamin D exposure and prevalence or abundance of a specific bacterial group or species was analyzed using logistic or linear regression, respectively. There was a statistically significant negative linear trend between counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and levels of maternal vitamin D supplementation and maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D quintiles, respectively. In addition, a positive linear trend between quintile groups and B. fragilis group counts was observed. Lower counts of C. difficile were associated with vitamin D supplementation of breast fed infants whose mothers were more likely to adhere to an alternative lifestyle in terms of, e.g., dietary habits. These data suggest that vitamin D influences the abundance of several key bacterial taxa within the infant microbiota. Given that intestinal microbiotic homeostasis may be an important factor in the prevention of immune mediated diseases and that vitamin D status is a modifiable factor, further investigation of the impact of postnatal vitamin D supplementation should be conducted in older infants.
    • Interactions Between Genome-Wide Significant Genetic Variants and Circulating Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Relation to Prostate Cancer Risk in the National Cancer Institute BPC3.

      Dimitrakopoulou, Vasiliki I; Travis, Ruth C; Shui, Irene M; Mondul, Alison; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Agudo, Antonio; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Gunter, Marc J; et al. (2017-03-15)
      Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer. However, information on the mechanistic basis for some associations is limited. Recent research has been directed towards the potential association of vitamin D concentrations and prostate cancer, but little is known about whether the aforementioned genetic associations are modified by vitamin D. We investigated the associations of 46 GWAS-identified SNPs, circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and prostate cancer (3,811 cases, 511 of whom died from the disease, compared with 2,980 controls-from 5 cohort studies that recruited participants over several periods beginning in the 1980s). We used logistic regression models with data from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) to evaluate interactions on the multiplicative and additive scales. After allowing for multiple testing, none of the SNPs examined was significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentration, and the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by these concentrations. A statistically significant interaction was observed for each of 2 SNPs in the 8q24 region (rs620861 and rs16902094), 25(OH)D concentration, and fatal prostate cancer on both multiplicative and additive scales (P ≤ 0.001). We did not find strong evidence that associations between GWAS-identified SNPs and prostate cancer are modified by circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D. The intriguing interactions between rs620861 and rs16902094, 25(OH)D concentration, and fatal prostate cancer warrant replication.
    • Is aircraft noise exposure associated with cardiovascular disease and hypertension? Results from a cohort study in Athens, Greece.

      Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Koutentakis, Konstantinos; Papageorgiou, Ifigeneia; Kasdagli, Maria-Iosifina; Haralabidis, Alexandros S; Sourtzi, Panayota; Samoli, Evangelia; Houthuijs, Danny; Swart, Wim; Hansell, Anna L; et al. (2017-11)
      We followed up, in 2013, the subjects who lived near the Athens International Airport and had participated in the cross-sectional multicountry HYENA study in 2004-2006.
    • Pre-diagnostic metabolite concentrations and prostate cancer risk in 1077 cases and 1077 matched controls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

      Schmidt, Julie A; Fensom, Georgina K; Rinaldi, Sabina; Scalbert, Augustin; Appleby, Paul N; Achaintre, David; Gicquiau, Audrey; Gunter, Marc J; Ferrari, Pietro; Kaaks, Rudolf; et al. (2017-07-05)
      Little is known about how pre-diagnostic metabolites in blood relate to risk of prostate cancer. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between plasma metabolite concentrations and risk of prostate cancer overall, and by time to diagnosis and tumour characteristics, and risk of death from prostate cancer.