• Immunoglobulin A deficiency in children, an undervalued clinical issue.

      Koenen, M H Mischa; van Montfrans, J M Joris; Sanders, E A M Elisabeth; Bogaert, D Debby; Verhagen, L M Lilly (2019-12-01)
    • Influence of vitamin D on key bacterial taxa in infant microbiota in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

      Talsness, Chris E; Penders, John; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Damoiseaux, Jan; Thijs, Carel; Mommers, Monique (2017)
      Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties giving it the potential to affect microbial colonization of the intestinal tract. We investigated whether maternal vitamin D supplemention, maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, or direct supplementation of the infant influences key bacterial taxa within microbiota of one month old infants. Infant and maternal vitamin D supplement use was ascertained via questionnaires. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was determined at approximately the 36th week of pregnancy. In 913 one month old infants in the prospective KOALA Birth Cohort Study, fecal Bifidobacterium spp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Bacteroides fragilis group, Lactobacillus spp. and total bacteria were quantified with real-time polymerase chain reaction assays targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences. The association between vitamin D exposure and prevalence or abundance of a specific bacterial group or species was analyzed using logistic or linear regression, respectively. There was a statistically significant negative linear trend between counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and levels of maternal vitamin D supplementation and maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D quintiles, respectively. In addition, a positive linear trend between quintile groups and B. fragilis group counts was observed. Lower counts of C. difficile were associated with vitamin D supplementation of breast fed infants whose mothers were more likely to adhere to an alternative lifestyle in terms of, e.g., dietary habits. These data suggest that vitamin D influences the abundance of several key bacterial taxa within the infant microbiota. Given that intestinal microbiotic homeostasis may be an important factor in the prevention of immune mediated diseases and that vitamin D status is a modifiable factor, further investigation of the impact of postnatal vitamin D supplementation should be conducted in older infants.
    • The respiratory microbiota: new insights into pulmonary tuberculosis.

      Eshetie, Setegn; Van Soolingen, Dick (2019-01-25)
      Previous studies demonstrated that the diversity and composition of respiratory microbiota in TB patients were different from healthy individuals. Therefore, the aim of the present analysis was to estimate the relative proportion of respiratory microbiota at phylum and genus levels among TB cases and healthy controls. The PubMed and Google Scholar online databases were searched to retrieve relevant studies for the analysis. The statistical analysis was done using STATA version 11, pooled estimates are presented using graphs. The summary of findings in included studies is also presented in Table 1. The phylum level analysis shows that the pooled proportions of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Crenarchaeota were determined among tuberculosis patients and healthy controls. In brief, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla in both TB cases and healthy controls, composing 39.9 and 22.7% in TB cases and 39.4 and 19.5% in healthy controls, respectively. The genus level analysis noted that Streptococcus (35.01%), Neisseria (27.1%), Prevotella (9.02%) and Veillonella (7.8%) were abundant in TB patients. The Prevotella (36.9%), Gammaproteobacteria (22%), Streptococcus (19.2%) and Haemophilus (15.4%) were largely seen in healthy controls. Interestingly, Veillonella, Rothia, Leuconostoc were unique to TB cases, whereas Lactobacillus, and Gammaproteobacteria, Haemophilus, and Actinobacillus were identified only in healthy controls. The composition of the respiratory microbiota in TB patients and healthy controls were quite different. More deep sequencing studies are needed to explore the microbial variation in the respiratory system in connection with TB.