Browsing Articles and other publications by RIVM employees by Subjects
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Endpoint sensitivity in Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay.The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA) is a screening test for detecting chemicals with thyroid activity. There is little experience in data interpretation and in using AMA data for screening, testing and identifying endocrine disruptors. To investigate the sensitivity of different endpoints of the AMA, the publically available data for 57 thyroid active and inactive chemicals were compiled and analyzed. Endpoints body weight and length appeared as sensitive as apical thyroid responsive endpoints hind limb length (HLL) and developmental stage (DS) for 12 thyroid active chemicals. The sensitivity of body weight, length and HLL was comparable, which is higher than that of DS for 45 thyroid inactive chemicals. The decision logic of the AMA suggests that an advanced development alone indicates thyroid activity. The analysis here showed that advanced development at day 7 could indicate thyroid activity of a chemical. However, advanced development at day 21 may be influenced by thyroid inactive chemicals. Among 39 thyroid inactive chemicals, which affected one or more endpoints, 33% and 77% induced changes in HLL and/or DS at day 7 and 21, respectively; only 10% influenced thyroid histology. These results showed that apical thyroid responsive endpoints HLL and DS are influenced by thyroid active chemicals as well as thyroid inactive chemical. Both endpoints should be combined with thyroid histology for the identification of thyroid active chemicals. The use of the AMA in a testing strategy to identify chemicals with thyroid activity is discussed.