• Alcohol consumption and risk of urothelial cell bladder cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort.

      Botteri, E; Ferrari, P; Roswall, N; Tjønneland, A; Hjartåker, A; Huerta, J M; Fortner, R T; Trichopoulou, A; Karakatsani, A; La Vecchia, C; et al. (2017-11-15)
      Findings on the association between alcohol consumption and bladder cancer are inconsistent. We investigated that association in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. We included 476,160 individuals mostly aged 35-70 years, enrolled in ten countries and followed for 13.9 years on average. Hazard ratios (HR) for developing urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC; 1,802 incident cases) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Alcohol consumption at baseline and over the life course was analyzed, as well as different types of beverages (beer, wine, spirits). Baseline alcohol intake was associated with a statistically nonsignificant increased risk of UCC (HR 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.06 for each additional 12 g/day). HR in smokers was 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07). Men reporting high baseline intakes of alcohol (>96 g/day) had an increased risk of UCC (HR 1.57; 95% CI 1.03-2.40) compared to those reporting moderate intakes (<6 g/day), but no dose-response relationship emerged. In men, an increased risk of aggressive forms of UCC was observed even at lower doses (>6 to 24 g/day). Average lifelong alcohol intake was not associated with the risk of UCC, however intakes of spirits > 24 g/day were associated with an increased risk of UCC in men (1.38; 95% CI 1.01-1.91) and smokers (1.39; 95% CI 1.01-1.92), compared to moderate intakes. We found no association between alcohol and UCC in women and never smokers. In conclusion, we observed some associations between alcohol and UCC in men and in smokers, possibly because of residual confounding by tobacco smoking.
    • Increase in Legionnaires' disease cases associated with travel to Dubai among travellers from the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Netherlands, October 2016 to end August 2017.

      Dabrera, Gavin; Brandsema, Petra; Lofdahl, Margareta; Naik, Falguni; Cameron, Ross; McMenamin, Jim; Pebody, Richard; Phin, Nick (2017-09-21)
      Between 1 October 2016 and 31 August 2017, 51 Legionnaires' disease (LD) cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Netherlands were identified with associated travel to Dubai. Cases did not all stay in the same accommodation, indicating that no single accommodation could be the source for all these infections. While local investigations continue into other potential sources, clinicians should remain alert to the possibility of LD among travellers returning from Dubai with respiratory illness.
    • Pattern of risks of systemic lupus erythematosus among statin users: a population-based cohort study.

      De Jong, Hilda J I; van Staa, Tjeerd P; Lalmohamed, Arief; de Vries, Frank; Vandebriel, Rob J; Van Loveren, Henk; Klungel, Olaf H; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem (2017-10)
      To examine the association between the use of statins and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with focus on describing the patterns of risks over time.
    • Quantifying the public's view on social value judgments in vaccine decision-making: A discrete choice experiment.

      Luyten, Jeroen; Kessels, Roselinde; Atkins, Katherine E; Jit, Mark; van Hoek, Albert Jan (2019-03-20)
      Vaccination programs generate direct protection, herd protection and, occasionally, side effects, distributed over different age groups. This study elicits the general public's view on how to balance these outcomes in funding decisions for vaccines. We performed an optimal design discrete choice experiment with partial profiles in a representative sample (N = 1499) of the population in the United Kingdom in November 2016. Using a panel mixed logit model, we quantified, for four different types of infectious disease, the importance of a person's age during disease, how disease was prevented-via direct vaccine protection or herd protection-and whether the vaccine induced side effects. Our study shows clear patterns in how the public values vaccination programs. These diverge from the assumptions made in public health and cost-effectiveness models that inform decision-making. We found that side effects and infections in newborns and children were of primary importance to the perceived value of a vaccination program. Averting side effects was, in any age group, weighted three times as important as preventing an identical natural infection in a child whereas the latter was weighted six times as important as preventing the same infection in elderly aged 65-75 years. These findings were independent of the length or severity of the disease, and were robust across respondents' backgrounds. We summarize these patterns in a set of preference weights that can be incorporated into future models. Although the normative significance of these weights remains a matter open for debate, our study can, hopefully, contribute to the evaluation of vaccination programs beyond cost-effectiveness.