Browsing Articles and other publications by RIVM employees by Subjects
Now showing items 1-3 of 3
Changes in dietary intake, plasma carotenoids and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in breast cancer survivors after a lifestyle intervention: results from a single-arm trial.The influence of nutrition on breast cancer prognosis is still inconclusive and therefore dietary interventions incorporating dietary biomarkers are needed to confirm compliance with dietary goals and clarify biological mechanisms. The present study assessed whether a lifestyle intervention in breast cancer survivors could affect dietary biomarkers of fruit and vegetables and fatty acids. In this phase II single-arm trial, 37 overweight/obese early stage breast cancer patients completed a 12-week diet and exercise intervention. The intervention involved 1-h weekly diet sessions delivered by a dietician and 75-min bi-weekly physical activity sessions of moderate-to-high intensity led by trained monitors. Before and after the intervention, three 24-h dietary recalls were carried out to calculate nutrient intakes and, in addition, blood samples were taken to measure plasma carotenoids, vitamin E and retinol concentrations and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EFA) composition. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to assess changes in dietary and biomarkers measurements over the intervention period. After the intervention, there was a significant increase in the intake of dietary carotenoids (+15.1% compared to baseline) but not plasma carotenoids levels (+6.3%). Regarding the EFA levels, we observed a significant decrease in percentage of saturated fatty acids (-1.4%) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-2.9%) and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids (1.7%) and total and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (by 13.1% and 13.7%, respectively). A favourable decrease in the ratio of long-chain n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-9.1%) was also observed. After a short-term diet and exercise intervention in overweight/obese breast cancer survivors, we observed significant changes in dietary nutrients and fatty acid biomarkers, suggesting positive dietary changes that could be relevant for breast cancer prognosis.
Pre-diagnostic derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites and the occurrence of lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer: An individual participant data meta-analysis of two large population-based studies.Oxidative stress may be involved in carcinogenesis and biomarkers of oxidative stress like derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM) may be useful for cancer prediction. However, no previous study assessed the association of pre-diagnostic d-ROM measurements with cancer incidence. We measured serum d-ROM levels in a cohort sample of n = 4,345 participants of the German ESTHER study and in a case-cohort sample of the Norwegian Tromsø study (cancer cases: n = 941; subcohort: n = 1,000). Moreover, d-ROM was repeatedly measured at follow-ups of both studies. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were derived by (weighted) multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with time-dependent modeling of d-ROM levels for incident lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer. Individual study results were pooled by random effects meta-analysis. The HRs (95% CI) for comparison of top and bottom d-ROM tertile were statistically significant for lung (1.90 [1.25-2.89]), colorectal (1.70 [1.15-2.51]) and breast cancer incidence (1.45 [1.01-2.09]) but not for prostate cancer incidence (1.20 [0.84-1.72]). In conclusion, this individual participant data meta-analysis of two large population-based cohort studies with repeated d-ROM measurements yielded evidence for an involvement of high oxidative stress in carcinogenesis. Given the observed associations of pre-diagnostic d-ROM measurements with lung, colorectal and breast cancer incidence, subjects with increased serum d-ROM levels should be recommended to reduce these levels by lifestyle changes including smoking cessation, a healthy diet and an increase in physical activity.