Browsing Articles and other publications by RIVM employees by Subjects
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Association of menopausal characteristics and risk of coronary heart disease: a pan-European case-cohort analysis.Earlier age at menopause has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but the shape of association and role of established cardiovascular risk factors remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the associations between menopausal characteristics and CHD risk; the shape of the association between age at menopause and CHD risk; and the extent to which these associations are explained by established cardiovascular risk factors. We used data from EPIC-CVD, a case-cohort study, which includes data from 23 centres from 10 European countries. We included only women, of whom 10 880 comprise the randomly selected sub-cohort, supplemented with 4522 cases outside the sub-cohort. We conducted Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the underlying time scale, stratified by country and adjusted for relevant confounders. After confounder and intermediate adjustment, post-menopausal women were not at higher CHD risk compared with pre-menopausal women. Among post-menopausal women, earlier menopause was linearly associated with higher CHD risk [HRconfounder and intermediate adjusted per-year decrease = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.03, p = 0.001]. Women with a surgical menopause were at higher risk of CHD compared with those with natural menopause (HRconfounder-adjusted = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.10-1.42, p < 0.001), but this attenuated after additional adjustment for age at menopause and intermediates (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.96-1.29, p = 0.15). A proportion of the association was explained by cardiovascular risk factors. Earlier and surgical menopause were associated with higher CHD risk. These associations could partially be explained by differences in conventional cardiovascular risk factors. These women might benefit from close monitoring of cardiovascular risk factors and disease.
Prevalence, risk factors and genetic characterisation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E and CPE): a community-based cross-sectional study, the Netherlands, 2014 to 2016.BackgroundThe epidemiology of carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL-E) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in the general population is unknown.AimIn this observational study, the prevalence and risk factors for intestinal ESBL-E and CPE carriage in the Dutch general population were determined. ESBL-E were characterised.MethodsFrom 2014 to 2016, ca 2,000 residents were invited monthly to complete a questionnaire and provide a faecal sample, which was tested for ESBL-E. The first 1,758 samples were also tested for CPE. Risk factors for ESBL-E carriage were identified by multivariable logistic regression analysis. ESBL-E isolates underwent whole genome sequencing.ResultsOf 47,957 individuals invited, 4,177 (8.7%) completed the questionnaire and provided a faecal sample. ESBL-E were detected in 186 (4.5%) individuals, resulting in an adjusted prevalence of 5.0% (95% confidence interval (CI):3.4-6.6%). Risk factors were: born outside the Netherlands (odds ratio (OR): 1.99; 95% CI: 1.16-4.54), eating in restaurants > 20 times/year (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.04-2.76), antibiotic use < 6 months ago (OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.05-4.03), swimming in sea/ocean < 12 months ago (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.11-2.39), travelling to Africa (OR: 3.03; 95% CI: 1.23-7.46) or Asia (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.02-3.90) < 12 months ago, and not changing kitchen towels daily (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.24-3.87). The last had the largest population attributable risk (PAR) (47.5%). Eighty-four of 189 (44.4%) ESBL-E isolates carried blaCTX-M-15. Escherichia coli isolates belonged to 70 different sequence types (ST)s, of which ST131 (42/178 isolates; 23.6%) was most prevalent. Associations were observed between IncFIA plasmids and ST131 and blaCTX-M-27, and between IncI1 and ST88 and blaCTX-M-1. No CPE were detected.ConclusionsThe prevalence of ESBL-E carriage in the Netherlands' community-dwelling population is 5.0%. Identified risk factors were mostly travelling (particularly to Asia and Africa) and kitchen hygiene. CPE were not detected.