• Adherence to the WCRF/AICR Dietary Recommendations for Cancer Prevention and Risk of Cancer in Elderly from Europe and the United States: A Meta-Analysis within the CHANCES Project.

      Jankovic, Nicole; Geelen, Anouk; Winkels, Renate M; Mwungura, Blaise; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Illner, Anne K; Brenner, Hermann; Ordóñez-Mena, José M; Kiefte de Jong, Jessica C; Franco, Oscar H; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Agudo, Antonio; Peeters, Petra H; Tjønneland, Anne; Hallmans, Göran; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Park, Yikyung; Feskens, Edith J; de Groot, Lisette C; Kampman, Ellen (2017)
      It is unknown whether dietary recommendations for cancer prevention are applicable to the elderly. We analyzed WCRF/AICR recommendations in cohorts of European and U.S. adults ages 60 years and above.
    • Associations between lifestyle and air pollution exposure: Potential for confounding in large administrative data cohorts.

      Strak, Maciej; Janssen, Nicole; Beelen, Rob; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek; Houthuijs, Danny; van den Brink, Carolien; Dijst, Martin; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard (2017)
      Cohorts based on administrative data have size advantages over individual cohorts in investigating air pollution risks, but often lack in-depth information on individual risk factors related to lifestyle. If there is a correlation between lifestyle and air pollution, omitted lifestyle variables may result in biased air pollution risk estimates. Correlations between lifestyle and air pollution can be induced by socio-economic status affecting both lifestyle and air pollution exposure.
    • Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) prevalence in associated populations of humans and small ruminants in The Gambia.

      Bok, Jeroen; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Germeraad, Eveline A; Roest, Hendrik I J; Faye-Joof, Tisbeh; Jeng, Momodou; Nwakanma, Davis; Secka, Arss; Stegeman, Arjan; Goossens, Bart; Wegmüller, Rita; van der Sande, Marianne A B; van der Hoek, Wim; Secka, Ousman (2017)
      To simultaneously estimate the prevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) among adults and small ruminants, and C. burnetii shedding prevalence among small ruminants in households in the Kiang West district of The Gambia, and to assess associated risk factors.
    • Distribution of serotypes and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among commensal Streptococcus pneumoniae in nine European countries.

      Yahiaoui, Rachid Y; Bootsma, Hester J; den Heijer, Casper D J; Pluister, Gerlinde N; John Paget, W; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Stobberingh, Ellen E (2018-08-29)
      Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commensal of the human upper respiratory tract and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This paper presents the distribution of serotypes and antimicrobial resistance in commensal S. pneumoniae strains cultured from healthy carriers older than four years of age in nine European countries.
    • HIV testing week 2015: lowering barriers for HIV testing among high-risk groups in Amsterdam.

      Bartelsman, M; Joore, I K; van Bergen, J E; Hogewoning, A A; Zuure, F R; van Veen, M G (2017-08-01)
      Evaluation of the HIV Testing Week (HTW) 2015 in Amsterdam: the number of (positive) tested persons, characteristics and testing history of the tested population, the differences in attendance per location and the healthcare workers' experiences and opinions concerning the HTW.
    • Identification of differences in health impact modelling of salt reduction.

      Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Geleijnse, Johanna M; van Raaij, Joop M A; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Cobiac, Linda C; Scarborough, Peter; Nusselder, Wilma J; Jaccard, Abbygail; Boshuizen, Hendriek C (2017)
      We examined whether specific input data and assumptions explain outcome differences in otherwise comparable health impact assessment models. Seven population health models estimating the impact of salt reduction on morbidity and mortality in western populations were compared on four sets of key features, their underlying assumptions and input data. Next, assumptions and input data were varied one by one in a default approach (the DYNAMO-HIA model) to examine how it influences the estimated health impact. Major differences in outcome were related to the size and shape of the dose-response relation between salt and blood pressure and blood pressure and disease. Modifying the effect sizes in the salt to health association resulted in the largest change in health impact estimates (33% lower), whereas other changes had less influence. Differences in health impact assessment model structure and input data may affect the health impact estimate. Therefore, clearly defined assumptions and transparent reporting for different models is crucial. However, the estimated impact of salt reduction was substantial in all of the models used, emphasizing the need for public health actions.
    • Increase in Legionnaires' disease cases associated with travel to Dubai among travellers from the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Netherlands, October 2016 to end August 2017.

      Dabrera, Gavin; Brandsema, Petra; Lofdahl, Margareta; Naik, Falguni; Cameron, Ross; McMenamin, Jim; Pebody, Richard; Phin, Nick (2017-09-21)
      Between 1 October 2016 and 31 August 2017, 51 Legionnaires' disease (LD) cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Netherlands were identified with associated travel to Dubai. Cases did not all stay in the same accommodation, indicating that no single accommodation could be the source for all these infections. While local investigations continue into other potential sources, clinicians should remain alert to the possibility of LD among travellers returning from Dubai with respiratory illness.
    • Infectious reactivation of cytomegalovirus explaining age- and sex-specific patterns of seroprevalence.

      van Boven, Michiel; van de Kassteele, Jan; Korndewal, Marjolein J; van Dorp, Christiaan H; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; van der Klis, Fiona; de Melker, Hester E; Vossen, Ann C; van Baarle, Debbie (2017-09)
      Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes virus with poorly understood transmission dynamics. Person-to-person transmission is thought to occur primarily through transfer of saliva or urine, but no quantitative estimates are available for the contribution of different infection routes. Using data from a large population-based serological study (n = 5,179), we provide quantitative estimates of key epidemiological parameters, including the transmissibility of primary infection, reactivation, and re-infection. Mixture models are fitted to age- and sex-specific antibody response data from the Netherlands, showing that the data can be described by a model with three distributions of antibody measurements, i.e. uninfected, infected, and infected with increased antibody concentration. Estimates of seroprevalence increase gradually with age, such that at 80 years 73% (95%CrI: 64%-78%) of females and 62% (95%CrI: 55%-68%) of males are infected, while 57% (95%CrI: 47%-67%) of females and 37% (95%CrI: 28%-46%) of males have increased antibody concentration. Merging the statistical analyses with transmission models, we find that models with infectious reactivation (i.e. reactivation that can lead to the virus being transmitted to a novel host) fit the data significantly better than models without infectious reactivation. Estimated reactivation rates increase from low values in children to 2%-4% per year in women older than 50 years. The results advance a hypothesis in which transmission from adults after infectious reactivation is a key driver of transmission. We discuss the implications for control strategies aimed at reducing CMV infection in vulnerable groups.
    • Influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates in the Dutch population from 2003 to 2014: The test-negative design case-control study with different control groups.

      van Doorn, Eva; Darvishian, Maryam; Dijkstra, Frederika; Donker, Gé A; Overduin, Pieter; Meijer, Adam; Hak, Eelko (2017-05-15)
      Information about influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) is important for vaccine strain selection and immunization policy decisions. The test-negative design (TND) case-control study is commonly used to obtain IVE estimates. However, the definition of the control patients may influence IVE estimates. We have conducted a TND study using the Dutch Sentinel Practices of NIVEL Primary Care Database which includes data from patients who consulted the General Practitioner (GP) for an episode of acute influenza-like illness (ILI) or acute respiratory infection (ARI) with known influenza vaccination status. Cases were patients tested positive for influenza virus. Controls were grouped into those who tested (1) negative for influenza virus (all influenza negative), (2) negative for influenza virus, but positive for respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus or enterovirus (non-influenza virus positive), and (3) negative for these four viruses (pan-negative). We estimated the IVE over all epidemic seasons from 2003/2004 through 2013/2014, pooled IVE for influenza vaccine partial/full matched and mismatched seasons and the individual seasons using generalized linear mixed-effect and multiple logistic regression models. The overall IVE adjusted for age, GP ILI/ARI diagnosis, chronic disease and respiratory allergy was 35% (95% CI: 15-48), 64% (95% CI: 49-75) and 21% (95% CI: -1 to 39) for all influenza negative, non-influenza virus positive and pan-negative controls, respectively. In both the main and subgroup analyses IVE estimates were the highest using non-influenza virus positive controls, likely due to limiting inclusion of controls without laboratory-confirmation of a virus causing the respiratory disease.
    • Influenza-like Illness Incidence Is Not Reduced by Influenza Vaccination in a Cohort of Older Adults, Despite Effectively Reducing Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza Virus Infections.

      van Beek, Josine; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Bruin, Jacob P; van Boxtel, Renée A J; de Lange, Marit M A; Meijer, Adam; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Rots, Nynke Y; Luytjes, Willem (2017-08-15)
      Data on the relative contribution of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens to respiratory infections in community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years) are needed.
    • Pattern of risks of systemic lupus erythematosus among statin users: a population-based cohort study.

      De Jong, Hilda J I; van Staa, Tjeerd P; Lalmohamed, Arief; de Vries, Frank; Vandebriel, Rob J; Van Loveren, Henk; Klungel, Olaf H; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem (2017-10)
      To examine the association between the use of statins and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with focus on describing the patterns of risks over time.
    • Road traffic noise and registry based use of sleep medication.

      Evandt, Jorunn; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Nafstad, Per; Schwarze, Per E; Skovlund, Eva; Houthuijs, Danny; Aasvang, Gunn Marit (2017-10-23)
      Road traffic noise has been associated with adverse health effects including sleep disturbances. Use of sleep medication as an indicator of sleeping problems has rarely been explored in studies of the effects of traffic noise. Furthermore, using registry data on sleep medications provides an opportunity to study the effects of noise on sleep where attribution of sleep problems to noise is not possible.
    • Screening for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis on dried blood spots: A promising method to better reach hidden high-risk populations with self-collected sampling.

      van Loo, Inge H M; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; Heuts, Rosalie; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Hoebe, Christian J P A (2017)
      Many people at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), e.g., men who have sex with men (MSM), are not optimally reached by current sexual health care systems with testing. To facilitate testing by home-based sampling or sampling in outreach setting we evaluated dried blood spots (DBS), a method for self-collected blood sampling for serological screening of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and syphilis. The aims of this study were to assess the acceptability and feasibility of self-collected DBS and to compare the test results for screening of HIV, HBV and syphilis from DBS with blood drawn by venous puncture.
    • Vaccine preferences and acceptance of older adults.

      Eilers, R; de Melker, H E; Veldwijk, J; Krabbe, P F M (2017-05-15)
      Expanding vaccination programs for the older population might be important as older adults are becoming a larger proportion of the general population. The aim of this study is to determine the relative importance of vaccine and disease specific characteristics and acceptance for Dutch older adults, including pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, pertussis vaccination, and influenza vaccination.