• Four experimental stimulants found in sports and weight loss supplements: 2-amino-6-methylheptane (octodrine), 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA), 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (1,3-DMBA).

      Cohen, Pieter A; Travis, John C; Keizers, Peter H J; Deuster, Patricia; Venhuis, Bastiaan J (2017-11-08)
      The United States Food and Drug Administration banned the stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) from dietary supplements and warned consumers that the stimulant can pose cardiovascular risks ranging from high blood pressure to heart attacks.
    • Four normative perspectives on public health policy-making and their preferences for bodies of evidence.

      Schoemaker, Casper G; van Loon, Jeanne; Achterberg, Peter W; den Hertog, Frank R J; Hilderink, Henk; Melse, Johan; Vonk, Robert A A; van Oers, Hans (2020-08-24)
    • A four-domain approach of frailty explored in the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

      van Oostrom, Sandra H; van der A, Daphne L; Rietman, M Liset; Picavet, H Susan J; Lette, Manon; Verschuren, W M Monique; de Bruin, Simone R; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W (2017-08-30)
      Accumulation of problems in physical, psychological, cognitive, or social functioning is characteristic for frail individuals. Using a four-domain approach of frailty, this study explored how sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, life events and health are associated with frailty.
    • Frailty is associated with elevated CRP trajectories and higher numbers of neutrophils and monocytes.

      Samson, Leonard Daniël; Boots, A Mieke H; Verschuren, W M Monique; Picavet, H Susan J; Engelfriet, Peter; Buisman, Anne-Marie (2019-10-01)
    • A framework for grouping and read-across of nanomaterials- supporting innovation and risk assessment.

      Stone, V; Gottardo, S.; Bleeker, EAJ; Braakhuis, H; Dekkers, S; Fernandes, T; Haase, A; Hunt, N; Oomen, AG; et al. (2020-08-31)
    • A Framework for the Risk Assessment and Management of Gene Drive Technology in Contained Use

      van der Vlugt, Cécile J. B.; Brown, David D.; Lehmann, Kathleen; Leunda, Amaya; Willemarck, Nicolas; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Microbiology and Biotechnology Unit, Bootle, Merseyside, UK; Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety, Berlin, Germany; Scientific Institute of Public Health (WIV-ISP), Brussels, Belgium; Scientific Institute of Public Health (WIV-ISP), Brussels, Belgium (2018-03-05)
    • Frequency and determinants of consistent STI/HIV testing among men who have sex with men testing at STI outpatient clinics in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

      Visser, Maartje; Heijne, Janneke C M; Hogewoning, Arjan A; van Aar, Fleur (2017)
      Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at highest risk for STIs and HIV infections in the Netherlands. However, official guidelines on STI testing among MSM are lacking. They are advised to test for STIs at least every six months, but their testing behaviour is not well known. This study aimed to get insight into the proportion and determinants of consistent 6-monthly STI testing among MSM testing at STI outpatient clinics in the Netherlands.
    • Frequency of Adverse Events after Vaccination with Different Vaccinia Strains.

      Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wallinga, Jacco; Teunis, Peter F M; Xing, Shuqin; Mikolajczyk, Rafael (2006-08-22)
      BACKGROUND: Large quantities of smallpox vaccine have been stockpiled to protect entire nations against a possible reintroduction of smallpox. Planning for an appropriate use of these stockpiled vaccines in response to a smallpox outbreak requires a rational assessment of the risks of vaccination-related adverse events, compared to the risk of contracting an infection. Although considerable effort has been made to understand the dynamics of smallpox transmission in modern societies, little attention has been paid to estimating the frequency of adverse events due to smallpox vaccination. Studies exploring the consequences of smallpox vaccination strategies have commonly used a frequency of approximately one death per million vaccinations, which is based on a study of vaccination with the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) strain of vaccinia virus. However, a multitude of historical studies of smallpox vaccination with other vaccinia strains suggest that there are strain-related differences in the frequency of adverse events after vaccination. Because many countries have stockpiled vaccine based on the Lister strain of vaccinia virus, a quantitative evaluation of the adverse effects of such vaccines is essential for emergency response planning. We conducted a systematic review and statistical analysis of historical data concerning vaccination against smallpox with different strains of vaccinia virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed historical vaccination data extracted from the literature. We extracted data on the frequency of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to vaccinia strain and age of vaccinees. Using a hierarchical Bayesian approach for meta-analysis, we estimated the expected frequencies of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to age at vaccination for smallpox vaccines based on the NYCBH and Lister vaccinia strains. We found large heterogeneity between findings from different studies and a time-period effect that showed decreasing incidences of adverse events over several decades. To estimate death rates, we then restricted our analysis to more-recent studies. We estimated that vaccination with the NYCBH strain leads to an average of 1.4 deaths per million vaccinations (95% credible interval, 0-6) and that vaccination with Lister vaccine leads to an average of 8.4 deaths per million vaccinations (95% credible interval, 0-31). We combined age-dependent estimates of the frequency of death after vaccination and revaccination with demographic data to obtain estimates of the expected number of deaths in present societies due to vaccination with the NYCBH and Lister vaccinia strains. CONCLUSIONS: Previous analyses of smallpox vaccination policies, which rely on the commonly assumed value of one death per million vaccinations, may give serious underestimates of the number of deaths resulting from vaccination. Moreover, because there are large, strain-dependent differences in the frequency of adverse events due to smallpox vaccination, it is difficult to extrapolate from predictions for the NYCBH-derived vaccines (stockpiled in countries such as the US) to predictions for the Lister-derived vaccines (stockpiled in countries such as Germany). In planning for an effective response to a possible smallpox outbreak, public-health decision makers should reconsider their strategies of when to opt for ring vaccination and when to opt for mass vaccination.
    • From accelerometer output to physical activity intensities in breast cancer patients.

      Sweegers, Maike G; Buffart, Laurien M; Huijsmans, Rosalie J; Konings, Inge R; van Zweeden, Annette A; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Altenburg, Teatske M (2019-09-07)
      We aimed to investigate accelerometer output corresponding to physical activity intensity cut-points based on percentage of peak oxygen consumption (%VO2peak) and Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) value in women treated for breast cancer.
    • From intention to STI prevention: An online questionnaire on barriers and facilitators for discussing sexual risk behaviour among HIV nurses.

      de Munnik, Suzanne; Vervoort, Sigrid C J M; Ammerlaan, Heidi S M; Kok, Gerjo; den Daas, Chantal (2017-12)
      We aimed to elucidate facilitators and barriers that HIV nurses experience in discussing sexual risk behaviour with HIV-positive men who have sex with men, using variables from a previous qualitative study and the theory of planned behaviour.
    • From neonatal hearing screening to intervention: Results of the Dutch program for neonatal hearing screening in Well Babies.

      Uilenburg, N; van der Ploeg, C; van der Zee, R; Meuwese-Jongejeugd, A; van Zanten, B (2019-04-15)
    • Fruit and vegetable intake and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

      Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; et al. (2017)
      Several dietary factors have been studied in relation to prostate cancer; however, most studies have not reported on subtypes of fruit and vegetables or tumor characteristics, and results obtained so far are inconclusive. This study aimed to examine the prospective association of total and subtypes of fruit and vegetable intake with the incidence of prostate cancer overall, by grade and stage of disease, and prostate cancer death. Lifestyle information for 142,239 men participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition from 8 European countries was collected at baseline. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up time of 13.9 years, 7,036 prostate cancer cases were identified. Compared with the lowest fifth, those in the highest fifth of total fruit intake had a significantly reduced prostate cancer risk (HR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.83-0.99; p-trend = 0.01). No associations between fruit subtypes and prostate cancer risk were observed, except for citrus fruits, where a significant trend was found (HR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.86-1.02; p-trend = 0.01). No associations between total and subtypes of vegetables and prostate cancer risk were observed. We found no evidence of heterogeneity in these associations by tumor grade and stage, with the exception of significant heterogeneity by tumor grade (pheterogeneity <0.001) for leafy vegetables. No significant associations with prostate cancer death were observed. The main finding of this prospective study was that a higher fruit intake was associated with a small reduction in prostate cancer risk. Whether this association is causal remains unclear.
    • Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of stomach and oesophagus adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST).

      González, Carlos Alberto; Pera, Guillem; Agudo, Antonio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ceroti, Marco; Boeing, Heiner; Schulz, Mandy; Giudice, Giuseppe del; Plebani, Mario; Carneiro, Fátima; et al. (2006-05-15)
      It is considered that fruit and vegetable (F&V) protect against oesophagus and gastric cancer (GC). However, 2 recent meta-analyses suggest that the strength of association on GC seems to be weaker for vegetables than for fruit and weaker in cohort than in case-control studies. No evidence exists from cohort studies about adenocarcinoma of oesophagus (ACO). In 521,457 men and women participating in the EPIC cohort in 10 European countries, information of diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. After an average of 6.5 years of follow-up, a total of 330 GC and 65 ACO, confirmed and classified by a panel of pathologists, was used for the analysis. We examined the relation between F&V intake and GC and ACO. A calibration study in a sub-sample was used to control diet measurement errors. In a sub-sample of cases and a random sample of controls, antibodies against Helicobacter pylori (Hp) were measured and interactions with F&V were examined in a nested case-control study. We observed no association with total vegetable intake or specific groups of vegetables and GC risk, except for the intestinal type, where a negative association is possible regarding total vegetable (calibrated HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.35-1.22 per 100 g increase) and onion and garlic intake (calibrated HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.38-1.29 per 10 g increase). No evidence of association between fresh fruit intake and GC risk was observed. We found a negative but non significant association between citrus fruit intake and the cardia site (calibrated HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.47-1.22 per 100 g increase) while no association was observed with the non-cardia site. Regarding ACO, we found a non significant negative association for vegetable intake and for citrus intake (calibrated HRs 0.72; 95% CI 0.32-1.64 and 0.77; 95% CI 0.46-1.28 per 100 and 50 g increase, respectively). It seems that Hp infection does not modify the effect of F&V intake. Our study supports a possible protective role of vegetable intake in the intestinal type of GC and the ACO. Citrus fruit consumption may have a role in the protection against cardia GC and ACO.
    • Functional characterization of a multi-cancer risk locus on chr5p15.33 reveals regulation of TERT by ZNF148.

      Fang, Jun; Jia, Jinping; Makowski, Matthew; Xu, Mai; Wang, Zhaoming; Zhang, Tongwu; Hoskins, Jason W; Choi, Jiyeon; Han, Younghun; Zhang, Mingfeng; et al. (2017-05-02)
      Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped multiple independent cancer susceptibility loci to chr5p15.33. Here, we show that fine-mapping of pancreatic and testicular cancer GWAS within one of these loci (Region 2 in CLPTM1L) focuses the signal to nine highly correlated SNPs. Of these, rs36115365-C associated with increased pancreatic and testicular but decreased lung cancer and melanoma risk, and exhibited preferred protein-binding and enhanced regulatory activity. Transcriptional gene silencing of this regulatory element repressed TERT expression in an allele-specific manner. Proteomic analysis identifies allele-preferred binding of Zinc finger protein 148 (ZNF148) to rs36115365-C, further supported by binding of purified recombinant ZNF148. Knockdown of ZNF148 results in reduced TERT expression, telomerase activity and telomere length. Our results indicate that the association with chr5p15.33-Region 2 may be explained by rs36115365, a variant influencing TERT expression via ZNF148 in a manner consistent with elevated TERT in carriers of the C allele.
    • Functional diversity in nematode communities across terrestrial ecosystems

      Sechi, Valentina; De Goede, Ron G.M.; Rutgers, Michiel; Brussaard, Lijbert; Mulder, Christian (2018-05)
    • Functional foods: the case for closer evaluation.

      Jong, Nynke de; Klungel, Olaf H; Verhagen, Hans; Wolfs, Marion C J; Ocké, Marga C; Leufkens, Hubert G M (2007-05-19)
      Current regulations focus on the mandatory safety evaluation of functional foods before they come to market, but Nynke de Jong and colleagues argue that the effects of such foods should also be evaluated after they have been launched
    • Functional recovery of biofilm bacterial communities after copper exposure.

      Boivin, Marie-Elène Y; Massieux, Boris; Breure, Anton M; Greve, Gerdit D; Rutgers, Michiel; Admiraal, Wim (2006-03-01)
      Potential of bacterial communities in biofilms to recover after copper exposure was investigated. Biofilms grown outdoor in shallow water on glass dishes were exposed in the laboratory to 0.6, 2.1, 6.8 micromol/l copper amended surface water and a reference and subsequently to un-amended surface water. Transitions of bacterial communities were characterised with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and community-level physiological profiles (CLPP). Exposure to 6.8 micromol/l copper provoked distinct changes in DGGE profiles of bacterial consortia, which did not reverse upon copper depuration. Exposure to 2.1 and 6.8 micromol/l copper was found to induce marked changes in CLPP of bacterial communities that proved to be reversible during copper depuration. Furthermore, copper exposure induced the development of copper-tolerance, which was partially lost during depuration. It is concluded that bacterial communities exposed to copper contaminated water for a period of 26 days are capable to restore their metabolic attributes after introduction of unpolluted water in aquaria for 28 days.