• Long-term evolution of upper stratospheric ozone at selected stations of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC)

      Steinbrecht, W; Claude, H; Schönenborn, F; McDermid, I S; Leblanc, T; Godin, S; Song, T; Swart, D P J; Meijer, Y J; Bodeker, G E; et al. (American Geophysical Union., 2006-05-31)
      The long-term evolution of upper stratospheric ozone has been recorded by lidars and microwave radiometers within the ground-based Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), and by the space-borne Solar Backscatter Ultra-Violet instruments (SBUV), Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE), and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE). Climatological mean differences between these instruments are typically smaller than 5% between 25 and 50 km. Ozone anomaly time series from all instruments, averaged from 35 to 45 km altitude, track each other very well and typically agree within 3 to 5%. SBUV seems to have a slight positive drift against the other instruments. The corresponding 1979 to 1999 period from a transient simulation by the fully coupled MAECHAM4-CHEM chemistry climate model reproduces many features of the observed anomalies. However, in the upper stratosphere the model shows too low ozone values and too negative ozone trends, probably due to an underestimation of methane and a consequent overestimation of ClO. The combination of all observational data sets provides a very consistent picture, with a long-term stability of 2% or better. Upper stratospheric ozone shows three main features: (1) a decline by 10 to 15% since 1980, due to chemical destruction by chlorine; (2) two to three year fluctuations by 5 to 10%, due to the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO); (3) an 11-year oscillation by about 5%, due to the 11-year solar cycle. The 1979 to 1997 ozone trends are larger at the southern mid-latitude station Lauder (45°S), reaching −8%/decade, compared to only about −6%/decade at Table Mountain (35°N), Haute Provence/Bordeaux (≈45°N), and Hohenpeissenberg/Bern(≈47°N). At Lauder, Hawaii (20°N), Table Mountain, and Haute Provence, ozone residuals after subtraction of QBO- and solar cycle effects have levelled off in recent years, or are even increasing. Assuming a turning point in January 1997, the change of trend is largest at southern mid-latitude Lauder, +11%/decade, compared to +7%/decade at northern mid-latitudes. This points to a beginning recovery of upper stratospheric ozone. However, chlorine levels are still very high and ozone will remain vulnerable. At this point the most northerly mid-latitude station, Hohenpeissenberg/Bern differs from the other stations, and shows much less clear evidence for a beginning recovery, with a change of trend in 1997 by only +3%/decade. In fact, record low upper stratospheric ozone values were observed at Hohenpeissenberg/Bern, and to a lesser degree at Table Mountain and Haute Provence, in the winters 2003/2004 and 2004/2005.
    • Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of brain tumor: the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).

      Andersen, Zorana J; Pedersen, Marie; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Stafoggia, Massimo; Galassi, Claudia; Jørgensen, Jeanette T; Sommar, Johan N; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; et al. (2018-02-19)
      Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and brain tumor risk is sparse and inconsistent.
    • Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in 15 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project.

      Andersen, Zorana J; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Pedersen, Marie; Galassi, Claudia; Jørgensen, Jeanette T; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; et al. (2017)
      Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent.
    • Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE).

      Fuks, Kateryna B; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Basagaña, Xavier; Gruzieva, Olena; Hampel, Regina; Oftedal, Bente; Sørensen, Mette; Wolf, Kathrin; Aamodt, Geir; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; et al. (2017-04-01)
      We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts.
    • Long-term exposure to fine particle elemental components and lung cancer incidence in the ELAPSE pooled cohort.

      Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Chen, Jie; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Atkinson, Richard; Bauwelinck, Mariska; Bellander, Tom; Brandt, Jørgen; Brunekreef, Bert; Cesaroni, Giulia; Concin, Hans; et al. (2020-12-02)
      An association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and lung cancer has been established in previous studies. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of chemical components from various sources and little is known about whether certain components contribute specifically to the associated lung cancer risk. The present study builds on recent findings from the "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration and addresses the potential association between specific elemental components of PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence.
    • Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particle Elemental Components and Natural and Cause-Specific Mortality-a Pooled Analysis of Eight European Cohorts within the ELAPSE Project.

      Chen, Jie; Rodopoulou, Sophia; de Hoogh, Kees; Strak, Maciej; Andersen, Zorana J; Atkinson, Richard; Bauwelinck, Mariska; Bellander, Tom; Brandt, Jørgen; Cesaroni, Giulia; et al. (2021-04-12)
      Inconsistent associations between long-term exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5   μ m [fine particulate matter ( PM 2.5 )] components and mortality have been reported, partly related to challenges in exposure assessment.
    • Long-term exposure to low-level air pollution and incidence of asthma: the ELAPSE project.

      Liu, Shuo; Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Ljungman, Petter; Pershagen, Göran; Bellander, Tom; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Rizzuto, Debora; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; et al. (2020-12-10)
      Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to childhood-onset asthma, while evidence is still insufficient. Within the multicentre project "Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe" (ELAPSE), we examined the associations of long-term exposures to particulate matter with diameter<2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon (BC) with asthma incidence in adults.
    • Long-term exposure to low-level air pollution and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The ELAPSE project.

      Liu, Shuo; Jørgensen, Jeanette T; Ljungman, Petter; Pershagen, Göran; Bellander, Tom; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Rizzuto, Debora; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; et al. (2020-12-01)
      Within the 'Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe' (ELAPSE) study, we pooled data from three cohorts, from Denmark and Sweden, with information on COPD hospital discharge diagnoses. Hybrid land use regression models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon (BC) in 2010 at participants' baseline residential addresses, which were analysed in relation to COPD incidence using Cox proportional hazards models.
    • Long-term exposure to particulate matter, NO2 and the oxidative potential of particulates and diabetes prevalence in a large national health survey.

      Strak, Maciej; Janssen, Nicole; Beelen, Rob; Schmitz, Oliver; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Karssenberg, Derek; van den Brink, Carolien; Bots, Michiel L; Dijst, Martin; Brunekreef, Bert; et al. (2017-11)
      The evidence from observational epidemiological studies of a link between long-term air pollution exposure and diabetes prevalence and incidence is currently mixed. Some studies found the strongest associations of diabetes with fine particles, other studies with nitrogen dioxide and some studies found no associations.
    • Long-Term Exposure to Ultrafine Particles and Incidence of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease in a Prospective Study of a Dutch Cohort.

      Downward, George S; van Nunen, Erik J H M; Kerckhoffs, Jules; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert; Boer, Jolanda M A; Messier, Kyle P; Roy, Ananya; Verschuren, W Monique M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; et al. (2018-01-01)
      There is growing evidence that exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; particles smaller than [Formula: see text]) may play an underexplored role in the etiology of several illnesses, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed o investigate the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient UFP and incident cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVA). As a secondary objective, we sought to compare effect estimates for UFP with those derived for other air pollutants, including estimates from two-pollutant models. Using a prospective cohort of 33,831 Dutch residents, we studied the association between long-term exposure to UFP (predicted via land use regression) and incident disease using Cox proportional hazard models. Hazard ratios (HR) for UFP were compared to HRs for more routinely monitored air pollutants, including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), PM with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), and [Formula: see text]. Long-term UFP exposure was associated with an increased risk for all incident CVD [[Formula: see text] per [Formula: see text]; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.34], myocardial infarction (MI) ([Formula: see text]; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.79), and heart failure ([Formula: see text]; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.66). Positive associations were also estimated for [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.48 per [Formula: see text]) and coarse PM ([Formula: see text]; HR for all [Formula: see text]; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.45 per [Formula: see text]). CVD was not positively associated with [Formula: see text] (HR for all [Formula: see text]; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.28 per [Formula: see text]). HRs for UFP and CVAs were positive, but not significant. In two-pollutant models ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]), positive associations tended to remain for UFP, while HRs for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] generally attenuated towards the null.
    • Long-term HPV-specific immune response after one versus two and three doses of bivalent HPV vaccination in Dutch girls.

      Pasmans, Hella; Schurink-Van't Klooster, Tessa M; Bogaard, Marjan J M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; de Melker, Hester E; Welters, Marij J P; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Buisman, Anne-Marie (2019-09-28)
    • Long-term impairment attributable to congenital cytomegalovirus infection: a retrospective cohort study.

      Korndewal, Marjolein J; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Kroes, Aloys C M; van der Sande, Marianne A B; de Melker, Hester E; Vossen, Ann C T M (2017)
      This study aimed to estimate long-term impairment attributable to congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV).
    • Long-term low-level ambient air pollution exposure and risk of lung cancer - A pooled analysis of 7 European cohorts.

      Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Severi, Gianluca; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Atkinson, Richard; Bauwelinck, Mariska; Bellander, Tom; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Brandt, Jørgen; Brunekreef, Bert; Cesaroni, Giulia; et al. (2020-11-13)
      The "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: a Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration pools seven cohorts from across Europe. We developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) to assign exposure to cohort participants' residential addresses in 100 m by 100 m grids. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status). We fitted linear models, linear models in subsets, Shape-Constrained Health Impact Functions (SCHIF), and natural cubic spline models to assess the shape of the association between air pollution and lung cancer at concentrations below existing standards and guidelines.
    • Long-term observations of the background aerosol at Cabauw, The Netherlands.

      Mamali, D; Mikkilä, J; Henzing, B; Spoor, R; Ehn, M; Petäjä, T; Russchenberg, H; Biskos, G (2018-01-03)
      Long-term measurements of PM2.5 mass concentrations and aerosol particle size distributions from 2008 to 2015, as well as hygroscopicity measurements conducted over one year (2008-2009) at Cabauw, The Netherlands, are compiled here in order to provide a comprehensive dataset for understanding the trends and annual variabilities of the atmospheric aerosol in the region. PM2.5 concentrations have a mean value of 14.4μgm-3 with standard deviation 2.1μgm-3, and exhibit an overall decreasing trend of -0.74μgm-3year-1. The highest values are observed in winter and spring and are associated with a shallower boundary layer and lower precipitation, respectively, compared to the rest of the seasons. Number concentrations of particles smaller than 500nm have a mean of 9.2×103particles cm-3 and standard deviation 4.9×103particles cm-3, exhibiting an increasing trend between 2008 and 2011 and a decreasing trend from 2013 to 2015. The particle number concentrations exhibit highest values in spring and summer (despite the increased precipitation) due to the high occurrence of nucleation-mode particles, which most likely are formed elsewhere and are transported to the observation station. Particle hygroscopicity measurements show that, independently of the air mass origin, the particles are mostly externally mixed with the more hydrophobic mode having a mean hygroscopic parameter κ of 0.1 while for the more hydrophilic mode κ is 0.35. The hygroscopicity of the smaller particles investigated in this work (i.e., particles having diameters of 35nm) appears to increase during the course of the nucleation events, reflecting a change in the chemical composition of the particles.
    • Long-term personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution among school children, a validation study.

      Roosbroeck, Sofie van; Wichmann, Janine; Janssen, Nicole A H; Hoek, Gerard; Wijnen, Joop H van; Lebret, Erik; Brunekreef, Bert (2006-09-15)
      Several recent studies suggest an association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and health. Most studies use indicators of exposure such as outdoor air pollution or traffic density on the street of residence. Little information is available about the validity of these measurements as an estimate of long-term personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution. In this pilot study, we assessed outdoor and personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution in children living in homes on streets with different degree of traffic intensity. The personal exposure of 14 children aged 9-12 years to 'soot', NO(x) (NO and NO(2)) was assessed in Amsterdam between March and June 2003. Each child's personal exposure was monitored during four repeated 48-h periods. Concurrently, in- and outdoor NO(x) measurements were carried out at the school and at the home of each participating child. Measurements were supplemented by a questionnaire on time activity patterns and possible indoor sources. Flow-controlled battery operated pumps in a made-to-fit backpack were used to sample personal exposure to 'soot', determined from the reflectance of PM(2.5) filters. Exposure to NO(x) was assessed using Ogawa passive samplers. Children living near busy roads were found to have a 35% higher personal exposure to 'soot' than children living at an urban background location, despite that all children attended the same school that was located away from busy roads. Smaller contrasts in personal exposure were found for NO (14%), NO(2) (15%) and NO(x) (14%). This finding supports the use of 'living near a busy road' as a measure of exposure in epidemiological studies on the effects of traffic-related air pollution in children.
    • Long-term protection against carriage of hepatitis B virus after infant vaccination.

      Sande, Marianne A B van der; Waight, P; Mendy, M; Rayco-Solon, P; Hutt, P; Fulford, T; Doherty, C; McConkey, S J; Jeffries, D; Hall, A J; et al. (2006-06-01)
      BACKGROUND: Carriage of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Infant vaccination has been effective in preventing horizontal transmission during early childhood. It is unknown whether protection is maintained into early adulthood. METHODS: In 1984, early childhood vaccination was introduced in 2 rural Gambian villages. In 2003, serological assessment of 81.5% of 1,350 eligible participants 1-24 years old was done, to determine vaccine efficacy against infection and carriage. RESULTS: Overall vaccine efficacy against infection and carriage was 83.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.8%-86.6%) and 96.5% (85% CI, 93.9%-98.9%), respectively. Vaccine efficacy against infection was similar when restricted to primary responders (85.3%), but a significant effect of peak antibody concentration was found. Both vaccine efficacy and levels of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) decreased with age, resulting in a vaccine efficacy against infection and carriage among 20-24-year-old participants of 70.9% (95% CI, 60.4%-80.5%) and 91.1% (95% CI, 75.8%-100%), respectively. Fifteen years after vaccination, fewer than half of the vaccinees had detectable anti-HBs. The prevalence of carriage in the unvaccinated population was similar to the prevalence 20 years earlier. CONCLUSIONS: HBV vaccination early during life can provide long-lasting protection against carriage, despite decreasing antibody levels. The role played by subclinical boosting and the necessity of a booster need to be evaluated.
    • Long-term sequelae of sporadic cryptosporidiosis: a follow-up study.

      Iglói, Zsófia; Mughini-Gras, L; Nic Lochlainn, L; Barrasa, A; Sane, J; Mooij, S; Schimmer, B; Roelfsema, J; van Pelt, W; Kortbeek, T (2018-05-05)
      To determine the frequency of occurrence of sequelae following cryptosporidiosis. A follow-up study was performed during a case-control study for sporadic cryptosporidiosis in the Netherlands (2013-2016). Cryptosporidiosis cases were invited to complete a follow-up questionnaire 4 months after diagnosis. Using a case-crossover study design, we compared the frequencies of reported symptoms 4 months after the acute phase to those reported 4 months before the onset of illness and during illness. Frequencies of symptoms in the pre- to post-infection phases were also compared with those of a population control group. Cryptosporidium species-specific effects were also studied. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for symptoms occurrence. Of the 731 available cases, 443 (60%) responded and 308 (42%) could be included in the follow-up study. The median age was 26 years (range 1-80); 58% were female; 30% were infected with C. hominis and 70% with C. parvum. Compared to before illness, cases were significantly more likely to report dizziness (OR = 2.25), headache (OR = 2.15), fatigue (OR = 2.04), weight loss (OR = 1.82), diarrhoea (OR = 1.50), abdominal pain (OR = 1.38) or joint pain (OR = 1.84). However, symptoms of joint pain and headache occurred among cases after illness at a rate that was not significantly different from that observed in the general population. There were no significant differences in post-infection symptom occurrence between C. hominis and C. parvum. The disease burden of cryptosporidiosis extends beyond the acute phase of the infection, with cases reporting both intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms up to 4 months following infection.
    • Long-term stability of oxidative stress biomarkers in human serum.

      Jansen, Eugène H J M; Beekhof, Piet K; Viezeliene, Dale; Muzakova, Vladimira; Skalicky, Jiri (2017-12)
      The storage time and storage temperature might affect stability of oxidative stress biomarkers, therefore, they have to be analyzed after long-term storage of serum samples. The stability of three biomarkers reflecting oxidative stress: reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) for hydroperoxides, total thiol levels (TTL) for the redox status and biological antioxidant potency (BAP) for the antioxidant status, was investigated at several time points during 60 months of storage at -20 and -80 °C. Biomarkers ROM and BAP showed a very good stability during storage for 60 months at both temperatures. In addition, the correlation of the data after 60 months of storage compared with the starting data was very good with correlation coefficients >0.9. The TTL assay showed good results in serum samples stored at -80 °C, but not in samples stored at -20 °C. Serum samples for analysis of the set of oxidative stress biomarkers ROM, BAP and TTL can be stored up to 60 months at -80 °C. ROM and BAP can also be stored at -20 °C during this period. The present results are very important for the biomarker-related epidemiological studies that make use of biobanks with samples stored for many years and for new project planning, including sample storage conditions.
    • Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in The Netherlands.

      Wielinga, Peter R; Gaasenbeek, Cor; Fonville, Manoj; Boer, Albert de; Vries, Ankje de; Dimmers, Wim; Akkerhuis Op Jagers, Gerard; Schouls, Leo M; Borgsteede, Fred; Giessen, Joke W B van der (2006-12-01)
      From 2000 to 2004, ticks were collected by dragging a blanket in four habitat areas in The Netherlands: dunes, heather, forest, and a city park. Tick densities were calculated, and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species was investigated by reverse line blot analysis. The lowest tick density was observed in the heather area (1 to 8/100 m2). In the oak forest and city park, the tick densities ranged from 26 to 45/100 m2. The highest tick density was found in the dune area (139 to 551/100 m2). The infection rates varied significantly for the four study areas and years, ranging from 0.8 to 11. 5% for Borrelia spp. and 1 to 16% for Ehrlichia or Anaplasma (Ehrlichia/Anaplasma) spp. Borrelia infection rates were highest in the dunes, followed by the forest, the city park, and heather area. In contrast, Ehrlichia/Anaplasma was found most often in the forest and less often in the city park. The following Borrelia species were found: Borrelia sensu lato strains not identified to the species level (2.5%), B. afzelii (2.5%), B. valaisiana (0.9%), B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (0.13%), and B. garinii (0.13%). For Ehrlichia/Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. not identified to the species level (2.5%), Anaplasma schotti variant (3.5%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum variant (0.3%), and Ehrlichia canis (0.19%) were found. E. canis is reported for the first time in ticks in The Netherlands in this study. Borrelia lusitaniae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and the human granylocytic anaplasmosis agent were not detected. About 1.6% of the ticks were infected with both Borrelia and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, which was higher than the frequency predicted from the individual infection rates, suggesting hosts with multiple infections or a possible selective advantage of coinfection.
    • Longitudinal associations between risk appraisal of base stations for mobile phones, radio or television and non-specific symptoms

      Martens, Astrid L.; Slottje, Pauline; Smid, Tjabe; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel C.H.; Timmermans, Danielle R.M. (2018-09)