• Human biomonitoring in health risk assessment in Europe: Current practices and recommendations for the future.

      Louro, Henriqueta; Heinälä, Milla; Bessems, Jos; Buekers, Jurgen; Vermeire, Theo; Woutersen, Marjolijn; van Engelen, Jacqueline; Borges, Teresa; Rousselle, Christophe; Ougier, Eva; et al. (2019-06-01)
    • The human CD4 T cell response against mumps virus targets a broadly recognized nucleoprotein epitope.

      de Wit, Jelle; Emmelot, Maarten E; Poelen, Martien C M; Lanfermeijer, Josien; Han, Wanda G H; van Els, Cécile A C M; Kaaijk, Patricia (2019-01-09)
      Mumps outbreaks among vaccinated young adults stress the need for a better understanding of the mumps virus (MuV)-induced immunity. Antibody responses to MuV are well-characterized, but studies on T cell responses are limited. We recently isolated a MuV-specific CD4
    • Human exposure to aerosol from indoor gas stove cooking and the resulting nervous system responses.

      Amouei Torkmahalleh, Mehdi; Naseri, Motahareh; Nurzhan, Sholpan; Gabdrashova, Raikhangul; Bekezhankyzy, Zhibek; Gimnkhan, Aidana; Malekipirbazari, Milad; Jouzizadeh, Mojtaba; Tabesh, Mahsa; Farrokhi, Hamta; et al. (2022-01-17)
      Our knowledge of the effects of exposure to indoor ultrafine particles (sub-100 nm, #/cm3 ) on human brain activity is very limited. The effects of cooking ultrafine particles (UFP) on healthy adults were assessed using an electroencephalograph (EEGs) for brain response. Peak ultrafine particle concentrations were approximately 3 × 105 particle/cm3, and the average level was 1.64 × 105 particle/cm3 . The average particle number emission rate (S) and the average number decay rate (a+k) for chicken frying in brain experiments were calculated to be 2.82 × 1012 (SD = 1.83 × 1012 , R2  = 0.91, p = 0.0013) particles/min, 0.47 (SD = 0.30, R2  = 0.90, p < 0.0001) min-1 , respectively. EEGs were recorded before and during cooking (14 min) and 30 min after the cooking sessions. The brain fast-wave band (beta) decreased during exposure, similar to people with neurodegenerative diseases. It subsequently increased to its pre-exposure condition for 70% of the study participants after 30 min. The brain slow-wave band to fast-wave band ratio (theta/beta ratio) increased during and after exposure, similar to observed behavior in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The brain then tended to return to its normal condition within 30 min following the exposure. This study suggests that chronically exposed people to high concentrations of cooking aerosol might progress toward AD.
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus Continuum of Care in 11 European Union Countries at the End of 2016 Overall and by Key Population: Have We Made Progress?

      Vourli, Georgia; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia; Porter, Kholoud; Axelsson, Maria; Begovac, Josip; Cazein, Francoise; Costagliola, Dominique; Cowan, Susan; Croxford, Sara; et al. (2020-09-22)
    • Human papillomavirus genotype replacement: still too early to tell?

      Man, Irene; Vänskä, Simopekka; Lehtinen, Matti; Bogaards, Johannes A (2020-01-27)
    • Human papillomavirus vaccination in adults: impact, opportunities and challenges - a meeting report.

      Waheed, Dur-E-Nayab; Schiller, John; Stanley, Margaret; Franco, Eduardo L; Poljak, Mario; Kjaer, Susanne K; Del Pino, Marta; van der Klis, Fiona; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Baay, Marc; et al. (2021-08-12)
    • Human papillomavirus vaccination uptake: a longitudinal study showing ethnic differences in the influence of the intention-to-vaccinate among parent-daughter dyads.

      Jongen, Vita W; van der Loeff, Maarten F Schim; Boyd, Anders; Petrignani, Mariska; Prins, Maria; van der Wal, Marcel; Nielen, Astrid; de Melker, Hester; Paulussen, Theo G W M; Alberts, Catharina J (2020-09-23)
    • Human Paramyxovirus Infections Induce T Cells That Cross-React with Zoonotic Henipaviruses.

      de Vries, Rory D; de Jong, Alwin; Verburgh, R Joyce; Sauerhering, Lucie; van Nierop, Gijsbert P; van Binnendijk, Robert S; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Maisner, Andrea; Koopmans, Marion P G; de Swart, Rik L (2020-07-07)
      Humans are infected with paramyxoviruses of different genera early in life, which induce cytotoxic T cells that may recognize conserved epitopes. This raises the question of whether cross-reactive T cells induced by antecedent paramyxovirus infections provide partial protection against highly lethal zoonotic Nipah virus infections. By characterizing a measles virus-specific but paramyxovirus cross-reactive human T cell clone, we discovered a highly conserved HLA-B*1501-restricted T cell epitope in the fusion protein. Using peptides, tetramers, and single cell sorting, we isolated a parainfluenza virus-specific T cell clone from a healthy adult and showed that both clones cleared Nipah virus-infected cells. We identified multiple conserved hot spots in paramyxovirus proteomes that contain other potentially cross-reactive epitopes. Our data suggest that, depending on HLA haplotype and history of paramyxovirus exposures, humans may have cross-reactive T cells that provide protection against Nipah virus. The effect of preferential boosting of these cross-reactive epitopes needs to be further studied in light of paramyxovirus vaccination studies.IMPORTANCE Humans encounter multiple paramyxoviruses early in life. This study shows that infection with common paramyxoviruses can induce T cells cross-reactive with the highly pathogenic Nipah virus. This demonstrates that the combination of paramyxovirus infection history and HLA haplotype affects immunity to phylogenetically related zoonotic paramyxoviruses.
    • Human Parechovirus 1, 3 and 4 Neutralizing Antibodies in Dutch Mothers and Infants and Their Role in Protection Against Disease.

      Karelehto, Eveliina; Wildenbeest, Joanne G; Benschop, Kimberley S M; Koen, Gerrit; Rebers, Sjoerd; Bouma-de Jongh, Saskia; Westerhuis, Brenda M; de Jong, Menno D; Pajkrt, Dasja; Wolthers, Katja C (2018-12-01)
      Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are common pathogens in young children, and in the Netherlands, HPeV1, HPeV3 and HPeV4 are the most frequently detected genotypes. HPeV3 in particular has been associated with severe disease in young infants below 3 months of age while the other genotypes more often infect older children and elicit mild symptoms. We investigated if maternal neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against HPeV1, HPeV3 and HPeV4 protect young Dutch infants from severe disease related to HPeV infection. We conducted a prospective case-control study of Dutch mother-infant pairs. Thirty-eight HPeV-infected infants and their mothers were included as cases, and 65 HPeV-negative children and their mothers as controls. In control infants, we observed nAb seropositivity rates of 41.4%, 33.3% and 27.6%, with median nAb titers of 1:16, 1:12 and 1:8, against HPeV1, HPeV3 and HPeV4, respectively. In control mothers, nAb seropositivity rates were 84.6%, 55.4% and 60.0% with median nAb titers of 1:128, 1:32 and 1:45 against HPeV1, HPeV3 and HPeV4, respectively. The HPeV3 nAb seroprevalence was significantly lower in HPeV3-infected infants and their mothers (0.0% with P < 0.05 and 10.0% with P < 0.001, respectively). In contrast, no differences in nAb seroprevalence against HPeV1 or HPeV4 could be detected between case and control infants or mothers. Our results suggest that young Dutch infants are protected against severe disease related to HPeV1 and HPeV4 by maternal nAbs, but less so against HPeV3 explaining the distinct age distributions and disease severity profiles of children infected with these HPeV genotypes.
    • Human reading computer automated reading of chest X-rays in a tuberculosis screening programme in Romania.

      de Vries, Gerard; Gainaru, Dan; Keizer, Sytze; Mahler, Beatrice; Radulescu, Ileana; Zamfirescu, Marina; Abubakar, Ibrahim (2021-03-10)
    • Humans significantly metabolize and excrete the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and its modified form deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside within 24 hours.

      Vidal, Arnau; Claeys, Liesel; Mengelers, Marcel; Vanhoorne, Valérie; Vervaet, Chris; Huybrechts, Bart; De Saeger, Sarah; De Boevre, Marthe (2018-03-27)
      For the first time, a comprehensive human intervention study was conducted to unravel the urinary excretion profile and metabolism of the fungal metabolite deoxynivalenol (DON) and its modified form deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside). Twenty volunteers were restricted in consuming cereals and cereal-based foods for 4 days. At day 3, a single bolus of 1 µg/kg body weight of DON and a single bolus of 1 µg/kg body weight of DON-3-glucoside after a washing-out period of two months was administered, and a 24-h urine collection was performed. The urine was analysed for DON, DON-3-glucoside, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), deoxynivalenol-3-glucuronide (DON-3-glucuronide) and deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide (DON-15-glucuronide). The urinary biomarker-analysis revealed that DON and DON-3-glucoside were rapidly absorbed, distributed, metabolized and excreted. Sixty-four % of the administered DON and 58% of DON-3-glucoside was recovered in the urine collected within 24 h. DON-15-glucuronide was the most prominent urinary biomarker followed by free DON and DON-3-glucuronide. Moreover, correlations among the presence of DON-15-glucuronide and DON-3-glucuronide were observed (within 24 hours (r = 0.61)). The DOM-1 detected in the urine was higher after the DON-3-glucoside administration. The obtained results are imperative to construct a standardized method to estimate DON-intake by means of urinary biomarkers.
    • Humoral responses after second and third SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders on immunosuppressants: a cohort study.

      Wieske, Luuk; van Dam, Koos P J; Steenhuis, Maurice; Stalman, Eileen W; Kummer, Laura Y L; van Kempen, Zoé L E; Killestein, Joep; Volkers, Adriaan G; Tas, Sander W; Boekel, Laura; et al. (2022-03-17)
    • The HUMTICK study: protocol for a prospective cohort study on post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome and the disease and cost burden of Lyme borreliosis in Belgium.

      Geebelen, Laurence; Lernout, Tinne; Kabamba-Mukadi, Benoît; Saegeman, Veroniek; Sprong, Hein; Van Gucht, Steven; Beutels, Philippe; Speybroeck, Niko; Tersago, Katrien (2017)
      In Belgium, different routine surveillance systems are in place to follow-up Lyme borreliosis trends. However, accurate data on the disease and monetary burden for the different clinical manifestations are lacking. Despite recommended antibiotic treatment, a proportion of Lyme patients report persisting aspecific symptoms for six months or more (e.g. fatigue, widespread musculoskeletal pain, cognitive difficulties), a syndrome now named "post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome" (PTLDS). Controversy exists on the cause, incidence and severity of PTLDS. This study aims to estimate the incidence of PTLDS in patients with Lyme borreliosis and to quantify the disease burden and economic costs associated with the different clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis in Belgium.
    • Hyalommateken in Nederland.

      Uiterwijk, M; Ibanez-Justicia, A; Sprong, H; Overgaauw, P; Nijsse, R; Dabekausen, C; Stroo, A (2020-12-12)
    • Hydrophobic Organic Pollutants in Soils and Dusts at Electronic Waste Recycling Sites: Occurrence and Possible Impacts of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers.

      Ohajinwa, Chimere May; van Bodegom, Peter M; Xie, Qing; Chen, Jingwen; Vijver, Martina G; Osibanjo, Oladele O; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2019-01-28)
      Concerns about the adverse consequences of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is increasing, because e-waste contains some hazardous substances such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) which is used as flame retardants in electronics. There is dearth of information on the concentrations of PBDEs and the pattern of distribution at the various e-waste recycling sites in Nigeria. This study therefore measured the concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners, in top soils (0⁻10 cm) and in various dust samples from different e-waste recycling sites (burning, dismantling, repair). PBDE concentrations at e-waste sites were compared with the concentrations in samples from corresponding control sites in three study locations in Nigeria (Lagos, Ibadan, and Aba). There were significant differences in the level of PBDEs congeners between each of the e-waste recycling sites and the corresponding control sites. The levels of PBDEs at the e-waste recycling sites exceeded the levels at the controls sites by a factor of 100 s to 1000 s. In general, PBDE concentrations at the e-waste sites decreased with the intensity of the e-waste recycling activities: burning sites > dismantling sites > repair sites > control sites. Our results suggest that the informal e-waste recycling has negative impacts on the enviroment and human health.
    • [Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine for COVID-19: no evidence of effectiveness].

      Vollaard, A; Gieling, E M; van der Linden, P D; Sinha, B; de Boer, M G J (2020-06-02)
    • Hyper-radiosensitivity affects low-dose acute myeloid leukemia incidence in a mathematical model.

      Stouten, Sjors; Balkenende, Ben; Roobol, Lars; Lunel, Sjoerd Verduyn; Badie, Christophe; Dekkers, Fieke (2022-07-21)