• No association between polymorphisms in CYP2E1, GSTM1, NAT1, NAT2 and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

      Agudo, Antonio; Sala, Núria; Pera, Guillem; Capellá, Gabriel; Berenguer, Antonio; García, Nadia; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Giudice, Giuseppe del; Saieva, Calogero; et al. (2006-05-01)
    • No evidence found for an increased risk of long-term fatigue following human papillomavirus vaccination of adolescent girls.

      Schurink-Van't Klooster, T M; Kemmeren, J M; van der Maas, N A T; van de Putte, E M; Ter Wolbeek, M; Nijhof, S L; Vanrolleghem, A M; van Vliet, J A; Sturkenboom, M; de Melker, H E (2018-10-29)
      In 2013, the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Center Lareb published an overview of reports of long-lasting fatigue following bivalent HPV-vaccination (2vHPV). After an update of this overview in 2015, concerns regarding the safety of 2vHPV was picked up by the media, which led to further reports of long-lasting fatigue. Therefore, the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) investigated a possible association between HPV-vaccination and long-term fatigue.
    • No evidence that mask-wearing in public places elicits risk compensation behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.

      Liebst, Lasse S; Ejbye-Ernst, Peter; de Bruin, Marijn; Thomas, Josephine; Lindegaard, Marie R (2022-01-27)
    • No increased risk of mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma after Q fever detected: results from a 16-year ecological analysis of the Dutch population incorporating the 2007-2010 Q fever outbreak.

      Weehuizen, Jesper M; van Roeden, Sonja E; Hogewoning, Sander J; van der Hoek, Wim; Bonten, Marc J M; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P; Wever, Peter C; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik (2022-03-30)
    • No molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in the blood of patients with erythema migrans in Belgium.

      Geebelen, Laurence; Lernout, Tinne; Tersago, Katrien; Terryn, Sanne; Hovius, Joppe W; Docters van Leeuwen, Arieke; Van Gucht, Steven; Speybroeck, Niko; Sprong, Hein (2022-01-20)
    • Noise exposure and children's blood pressure and heart rate: the RANCH project.

      Kempen, Elise van; Kamp, I van; Fischer, P; Davies, Hugh W; Houthuijs, D; Stellato, Rebecca K; Clark, Charlotte; Stansfeld, Stephen A (2006-09-01)
      BACKGROUND: Conclusions that can be drawn from earlier studies on noise and children's blood pressure are limited due to inconsistent results, methodological problems, and the focus on school noise exposure. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's blood pressure and heart rate. METHODS: Participants were 1283 children (age 9-11 years) attending 62 primary schools around two European airports. Data were pooled and analysed using multilevel modelling. Adjustments were made for a range of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: After pooling the data, aircraft noise exposure at school was related to a statistically non-significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate. Aircraft noise exposure at home was related to a statistically significant increase in blood pressure. Aircraft noise exposure during the night at home was positively and significantly associated with blood pressure. The findings differed between the Dutch and British samples. Negative associations were found between road traffic noise exposure and blood pressure, which cannot be explained. CONCLUSION: On the basis of this study and previous scientific literature, no unequivocal conclusions can be drawn about the relationship between community noise and children's blood pressure.
    • Non-lytic antibiotic treatment in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia does not attenuate inflammation: the PRISTINE trial.

      Groeneveld, Geert H; van der Reyden, Tanny J; Joosten, Simone A; Bootsma, Hester J; Cobbaert, Christa M; de Vries, Jutte J C; Kuijper, Ed J; van Dissel, Jaap T (2019-08-01)
    • Non-response in a survey of cardiovascular risk factors in the Dutch population: determinants and resulting biases.

      Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Viet, A L; Picavet, H Susan J; Botterweck, A; Loon, A J M van (2006-04-01)
      BACKGROUND: The aim of the research was to study the determinants of participation in a health examination survey (HES) which was carried out in a population that previously participated in a health interview survey (HIS) of Statistics Netherlands, and to estimate the effect of non-participation on both the prevalence of the main HES outcomes (risk factors for cardiovascular disease) and on relationships between variables. METHODS: Logistic regression was used to study the determinants of participation in the HES (n=3699) by those who had previously participated in the HIS (n=12,786). Linear models were used to predict the main outcomes in non-participants of the HES. Item non-response was handled by multiple imputation. RESULTS: HES participants had a higher socio-economic status and comprised more 'worried well', while the rural population were less likely to participate in the HES. Most predicted values of outcomes in HES non-participants differed from those in HES participants, but much of this was due to differences in the age and gender composition of both groups. Taking age and gender differences into account, most predicted values of outcomes in the entire HIS population were within the 95% confidence intervals of the HES values, with the exception of body height in men and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose and body weight in women. These differences are most likely to be due to the higher socio-economic status of HES participants. Relationships between HIS variables did not change significantly when using HES participants alone compared with all HIS participants. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high rate of non-participation, some bias, mostly small, was seen in the prevalence rates of the main outcome variables. Bias in the relationships between variables was negligible.
    • Non-specific effects of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in high income setting: population based cohort study in the Netherlands.

      Tielemans, Susanne M A J; de Melker, Hester E; Hahné, Susan J M; Boef, Anna G C; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Knol, Mirjam J (2017-08-30)
      Objectives To investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine has positive non-specific effects in a high income setting and to compare rates of hospital admissions for infections between children aged ≤2 years who received live MMR vaccine and those who received an inactivated vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) as their most recent vaccination.Design Nationwide population based cohort study.Setting In the Netherlands, DTaP-IPV-Hib+pneumococcal vaccination (PCV) is recommended at ages 2, 3, 4, and 11 months and MMR + meningococcal C (MenC) vaccination at age 14 months. Data from the national vaccine register were linked to hospital admission data.Participants 1 096 594 children born in 2005-11 who received the first four DTaP-IPV-Hib+PCV vaccines.Main outcome measures Hazard ratio for admission to hospital for infection in children with MMR+MenC compared with the fourth DTaP-IPV-Hib+PCV as their most recent vaccination. Cox regression was performed with most recent vaccination as time dependent variable, adjusted for potential confounders. Analyses were repeated with admission for injuries or poisoning as a negative control outcome. In addition, rate of admission for infection was compared between the fourth and third DTaP-IPV-Hib+PCVas most recent vaccination.Results Having had MMR+MenC as the most recent vaccination was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.67) for admission to hospital for infection and 0.84 (0.73 to 0.96) for injuries or poisoning, compared with the fourth DTaP-IPV-Hib+PCV as most recent vaccination. The fourth DTaP-IPV-Hib+PCV as most recent vaccination was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.69 (0.63 to 0.76) for admission to hospital for infection, compared with the third DTaP-IPV-Hib+PCV as most recent vaccination.Conclusions Healthy vaccinee bias could at least partly explain the observed lower rate of admission to hospital with infection after MMR vaccination. The lower rate is associated with receipt of any additional vaccine, not specifically MMR vaccine. This emphasises the caution required in the interpretation of findings from observational studies on non-specific effects of vaccination.
    • Nonclinical regulatory immunotoxicity testing of nanomedicinal products: Proposed strategy and possible pitfalls.

      Giannakou, Christina; Park, Margriet V D Z; Bosselaers, Irene E M; de Jong, Wim H; van der Laan, Jan Willem; van Loveren, Henk; Vandebriel, Rob J; Geertsma, Robert E (2020-09-01)
    • Norovirus Outbreak Associated with Swimming in a Recreational Lake Not Influenced by External Human Fecal Sources in The Netherlands, August 2012.

      Schets, Franciska M; van den Berg, Harold H J L; Vennema, Harry; Pelgrim, Manon T M; Collé, Cees; Rutjes, Saskia A; Lodder, Willemijn J (2018-11-14)
      Swimming in fecally contaminated recreational water may lead to gastrointestinal illness. A recreational water-associated outbreak of norovirus (NoV) infections affecting at least 100 people in The Netherlands occurred in August 2012. Questionnaire responses from patients indicated swimming in recreational lake Zeumeren as the most likely cause of illness. Most patients visited the lake during the weekend of 18⁻19 August, during which the weather was exceptionally warm (maximum temperatures 32⁻33 °C), and visitor numbers elevated. Patients, mostly children, became ill with gastroenteritis 1⁻6 days (median 2 days) after exposure. Four stool samples from patients were NoV GI positive. Subsurface sandy soil from one of the beaches where most patients swam was NoV GI positive; the water sample was negative. The epidemiological curve and the timeline of investigation based on reported symptoms demonstrate the difficulty in discovering the source in recreational water outbreaks. A NoV outbreak in a recreational lake that is not subjected to external fecal contamination sources shows the need for active communication about human shedding of viruses during and after diarrheal episodes and the advice to refrain from swimming, even a few weeks after the symptoms have resolved.
    • The Norwegian biomonitoring study from the EU project EuroMix: Levels of phenols and phthalates in 24-hour urine samples and exposure sources from food and personal care products.

      Husøy, T; Andreassen, M; Hjertholm, H; Carlsen, M H; Norberg, N; Sprong, C; Papadopoulou, E; Sakhi, A K; Sabaredzovic, A; Dirven, H A A M (2019-11-01)
    • Notification data and criteria during a large Q-fever epidemic reassessed.

      Hanssen, D A T; Morroy, G; de Lange, M M A; Wielders, C C H; van der Hoek, W; Dijkstra, F; Schneeberger, P M (2019-01-01)
    • A Novel Approach to Optimize Vitamin D Intake in Belgium through Fortification Based on Representative Food Consumption Data.

      Moyersoen, Isabelle; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Dekkers, Arnold; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; de Ridder, Karin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Tafforeau, Jean; Van Oyen, Herman; Lachat, Carl; van Camp, John (2019-10-01)
    • A novel concept in ground water quality management: Towards function specific screening values.

      Swartjes, Frank A; Otte, Piet F (2017)
      This paper is meant to initiate and feed the discussion on a more sophisticated procedure for the derivation and use of groundwater screening values (GSVs). To this purpose, the possibilities and tools for the derivation of function specific GSVs, i.e., GSVs that depend on the actual contact of humans and ecosystems with groundwater and groundwater-related mediums, are elaborated in this study. Application of GSVs geared to the specific use and function of specific groundwater volumes could result in a more effective and cost-efficient groundwater quality management, without compromising the protection of human health and the ecosystem. Therefore, a procedure to derive function specific GSVs was developed. For illustrative purposes, risk limits have been derived for human health and ecological protection targets, for arsenic, benzene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and vinylchloride. Agriculture and Nature reserves (combined), Residential and Industrial land uses have been considered and two different groundwater management purposes, i.e., curative and sustainable groundwater management. For each of the four contaminants, this results in a series of risks limits for each function and land use combination. It is shown that for all four contaminants higher groundwater screening values are considered appropriate for less sensitive combinations of function and land use. In the process towards (policy) implementation of these function specific GSV, it is recommended to evaluate the selection of protection targets, the scientific basis of the risk assessment procedures applied and the methodology to assess the time factor for groundwater quality assessment, given the fact that groundwater is a dynamic medium. Moreover, protection levels must be harmonized with national or regional groundwater quality standards and correspond with the requirements of the Groundwater Daughter Directive of the European Union Water Framework Directive. Groundwater plumes that are judged as 'no need for remediation' are not compatible with the Water Framework Directive requirement to take actions to prevent or limit inputs of contaminants, even when no receptor is present. However, the European Commission formulated a series of exemptions, to avoid that the "prevent" requirement would imply an onerous and sometimes unfeasible task. The function specific GSVs derived in this study could be used to identify the groundwater volumes that do not result in an unacceptable risk.
    • A Novel Experimental and Modelling Strategy for Nanoparticle Toxicity Testing Enabling the Use of Small Quantities.

      van Pomeren, Marinda; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Brun, Nadja R; Vijver, Martina G (2017-11-06)
      Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) differ from other metal forms with respect to their large surface to volume ratio and subsequent inherent reactivity. Each new modification to a nanoparticle alters the surface to volume ratio, fate and subsequently the toxicity of the particle. Newly-engineered NPs are commonly available only in low quantities whereas, in general, rather large amounts are needed for fate characterizations and effect studies. This challenge is especially relevant for those NPs that have low inherent toxicity combined with low bioavailability. Therefore, within our study, we developed new testing strategies that enable working with low quantities of NPs. The experimental testing method was tailor-made for NPs, whereas we also developed translational models based on different dose-metrics allowing to determine dose-response predictions for NPs. Both the experimental method and the predictive models were verified on the basis of experimental effect data collected using zebrafish embryos exposed to metallic NPs in a range of different chemical compositions and shapes. It was found that the variance in the effect data in the dose-response predictions was best explained by the minimal diameter of the NPs, whereas the data confirmed that the predictive model is widely applicable to soluble metallic NPs. The experimental and model approach developed in our study support the development of (eco)toxicity assays tailored to nano-specific features.