• Trends and correlates of antimicrobial use in broiler and turkey farms: a poultry company registry-based study in Italy.

      Caucci, Claudia; Di Martino, Guido; Dalla Costa, Alessandro; Santagiuliana, Manuel; Lorenzetto, Monica; Capello, Katia; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Gavazzi, Luigi; Bonfanti, Lebana (2019-05-18)
    • Trends and determinants of antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the Netherlands, 2007 to 2015.

      Hofstraat, Sanne Hi; Götz, Hannelore M; van Dam, Alje P; van der Sande, Marianne Ab; van Benthem, Birgit Hb (2018-09)
      BackgroundNeisseria gonorrhoeae antibiotic resistance surveillance is important to maintain adequate treatment. We analysed 2007-15 data from the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance (GRAS), which currently includes 19 of 25 sexually transmitted infection (STI) centres in the Netherlands. Methods: From each patient with a gonorrhoea culture, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for several antibiotics was determined. Time trends were assessed by geometric means and linear regression of logarithmic MIC. Determinants for decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.032 mg/L) and resistance to cefotaxime (MIC > 0.125 mg/L) and azithromycin (MIC > 0.5 mg/L) were assessed using stratified logistic regression. Results: 11,768 isolates were analysed. No ceftriaxone resistance was found. In 2015, 27 of 1,425 isolates (1.9%) were resistant to cefotaxime and 176 of 1,623 (10.9%) to azithromycin. Ceftriaxone susceptibility showed no trend (p = 0.96) during the study period, but cefotaxime MIC decreased (p < 0.0001) and azithromycin MIC increased (p < 0.0001) significantly. Concerning ceftriaxone, isolates of men who have sex with men (MSM) from 2013 (p = 0.0005) and 2014 (p = 0.0004) were significantly associated with decreased susceptibility. Significant determinants for cefotaxime resistance were having ≥ 6 partners for women (p = 0.0006). For azithromycin,isolates from MSM collected in 2012 (p = 0.0035), 2013 (p = 0.012), and 2014 (p = 0.013), or from non-Dutch (p < 0.0001) or older (≥ 35 years; p = 0.01) MSM were significantly associated with susceptibility. Resistance in heterosexual men was significantly associated with being ≥ 25 years-old (p = 0.0049) or having 3-5 partners (p = 0.01). Conclusions: No ceftriaxone resistance was found, but azithromycin MIC increased in 2007-15. Resistance determinants could help with focused intervention strategies.
    • Trends en determinanten van resistentie van Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Nederland

      Hofstraat S; Benthem B van; Dam A van; Linde I (2016-06)
    • Trends in antimicrobial management of gonorrhoea by general practitioners in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between 2010 and 2016: a cross-sectional study.

      van Amerongen, Roos; Gazendam, Roel P; van Bergen, Jan E A M (2019-01-15)
      Sexually transmitted infections (STI) caused by multidrug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoea are an emerging threat to global health. In the Netherlands, the general practitioner (GP) provides the major part of STI care. In 2013 an update of the Dutch guideline was published, recommending a single dose of intramuscular ceftriaxone as treatment for gonorrhoea infections. Data from a Dutch General Practitioner research database was used to investigate the guideline implementation for the treatment of gonorrhoea. A survey was conducted to gain more insight in GPs experiences with the recommended intramuscular therapy. Data on STI-related episodes and STI-diagnoses for gonorrhoea, based on ICPC codes were obtained from the electronic medical records (EMRs) from 35 GPs in Amsterdam for the years 2010 to 2016. Questionnaires regarding the treatment preferences were sent to GPs participating in the research network database. The number of gonorrhoea cases treated with first choice therapy increased from 81% in 2010 (intramuscular cefotaxime or ceftriaxone) to 93% in 2015 (only cefttriaxone). The number of ceftriaxone prescriptions increased substantially from 30% in 2010 to 93% in 2015. GPs preferred a single intramuscular shot of a third-generation cephalosporin above multiple oral doses of other antibiotics. The results demonstrate a successful shift in the antimicrobial management of gonorrhoea infections to ceftriaxone monotherapy according to the national guideline. GPs in this higher prevalence area in Amsterdam reported limited barriers in the intramuscular administration of third-generation cephalosporins.
    • Trends in governmental expenditure on vaccination programmes in the Netherlands, a historical analysis.

      van Wijhe, Maarten; de Boer, Pieter T; de Jong, Herman J; van Vliet, Hans; Wallinga, Jacco; Postma, Maarten J (2019-09-10)
    • Trends in human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses among men who have sex with men in North America, Western Europe, and Australia, 2000-2014.

      Chapin-Bardales, Johanna; Schmidt, Axel J; Guy, Rebecca J; Kaldor, John M; McGregor, Skye; Sasse, André; Archibald, Chris; Rank, Claudia; Casabona Barbarà, Jordi; Folch, Cinta; et al. (2018-12-01)
      The aim of the article was to investigate recent trends in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries in North America, Western Europe, and Australia. Data on annual rates of HIV diagnoses among MSM aged 15 to 65 years from 2000 to 2014 were collected from 13 high-income countries. Joinpoint regression software was used to empirically determine country-specific trend periods. Trends in HIV diagnosis rates and in the proportion of diagnoses occurring in young MSM aged 15 to 24 years were analyzed using Poisson regression and log-binomial regression, respectively. Six countries experienced an increasing trend from 2000 to 2007-08 followed by either a stable or declining trend through 2014. Five countries had recently increasing trends, and two countries had one stable trend from 2000 to 2014. All 13 countries experienced increases in the proportion of diagnoses occurring in young MSM. Since 2008, half of the 13 high-income countries examined experienced stable or decreasing trends. Still, some countries continue to experience increasing HIV trends, and young MSM are increasingly represented among new diagnoses. Efforts to support early sexual health promotion, reduce barriers to pre-exposure prophylaxis, and improve care engagement for young MSM are critical to addressing current HIV trends.
    • Trends in prevalence of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use in hospitals in the Netherlands: 10 years of national point-prevalence surveys.

      Hopmans, T E M; Smid, E A; Wille, J C; van der Kooi, T I I; Koek, M B G; Vos, M C; Geerlings, S E; de Greeff, S C (2019-10-15)
    • Trends in riverine element fluxes: A chronicle of regional socio-economic changes.

      Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Porcal, Petr; Posch, Maximilian (2017-11-15)
      We show how concentrations of water solutes in the Vltava River (Czech Republic) and their riverine outputs from the catchment were modified by socio-economic changes, land use, and hydrology between 1960 and 2015. In the early 1960s, HCO3 and Ca were the dominant ions. During 1960-1989 (a period of planned economy with an over-use of synthetic fertilizers, excessive draining of agricultural land and little environmental protection), the riverine concentrations of strong acid anions (SAAs: SO4, NO3, and Cl) increased 2-4-fold and their leaching was accompanied for by a 1.4-1.8-fold increase in concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, and Na. SAAs mostly originated from diffuse agricultural sources (synthetic fertilizers and mineralization of organic matter in freshly drained and deeply tilled agricultural land) and their annual average concentrations (as well as those of Ca, Mg, and K) were positively correlated with discharge. During 1990-2015 (a period of a re-established market economy, reduced fertilization, ceased drainage, partial conversion of arable land to pastures, and increasing environmental protection), concentrations of SO4 and NO3 significantly decreased due to reduced agricultural production and atmospheric pollution, and their positive correlations with discharge disappeared. In contrast, Na and Cl concentrations increased due to more intensive road de-icing, and their concentrations became negatively correlated with discharge. Trends in phosphorus concentrations reflected changes in its input by both diffuse (fertilizers) and point (wastewater) sources and were discharge independent.
    • Trends in Salmonella bij de mens, landbouwhuisdieren en in voedsel

      Broek I van den; Broek I van den; Broek I van den; Wit B; Heck M; Broek I van den (2016-10)
    • Trends in Salmonella in Nederland in 2016. Bij de mens, landbouwhuisdieren en in voedsel

      Broek I van den; Voort M van der; Broek I van den; Broek I van den; Wit B; de Melker HE; Broek I van den (2017-09-14)
    • Trends in socioeconomic disparities in stroke mortality in six european countries between 1981-1985 and 1991-1995.

      Avendaño, M; Kunst, A E; Lenthe, F van; Bos, V; Costa, G; Valkonen, T; Cardano, M; Harding, S; Borgan, J-K; Glickman, M; et al. (2005-01-01)
      This study assesses whether stroke mortality trends have been less favorable among lower than among higher socioeconomic groups. Longitudinal data on mortality by socioeconomic status were obtained for Finland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, England/Wales, and Turin, Italy. Data covered the entire population or a representative sample. Stroke mortality rates were calculated for the period 1981-1995. Changes in stroke mortality rate ratios were analyzed using Poisson regression and compared with rate ratios in ischemic heat disease mortality. Trends in stroke mortality were generally as favorable among lower as among higher socioeconomic groups, such that socioeconomic disparities in stroke mortality persisted and remained of a similar magnitude in the 1990s as in the 1980s. In Norway, however, occupational disparities in stroke mortality significantly widened, and a nonsignificant increase was observed in some countries. In contrast, disparities in ischemic heart disease mortality widened throughout this period in most populations. Improvements in hypertension prevalence and treatment may have contributed to similar stroke mortality declines in all socioeconomic groups in most countries. Socioeconomic disparities in stroke mortality generally persisted and may have widened in some populations, which fact underlines the need to improve preventive and secondary care for stroke among the lower socioeconomic groups.
    • Trends over Time in Adolescent Emotional Wellbeing in the Netherlands, 2005-2017: Links with Perceived Schoolwork Pressure, Parent-Adolescent Communication and Bullying Victimization.

      De Looze, M E; Cosma, A P; Vollebergh, W A M; Duinhof, E L; de Roos, S A; van Dorsselaer, S; van Bon-Martens, M J H; Vonk, R; Stevens, G W J M (2020-07-23)
      In some Scandinavian countries, the United Kingdom and the United States, there is evidence of a dramatic decline in adolescent emotional wellbeing, particularly among girls. It is not clear to what extent this decline can be generalised to other high-income countries. This study examines trends over time (2005-2009-2013-2017) in adolescent wellbeing in the Netherlands, a country where young people have consistently reported one of the highest levels of wellbeing across Europe. It also assesses parallel changes over time in perceived schoolwork pressure, parent-adolescent communication, and bullying victimization. Data were derived from four waves of the nationally representative, cross-sectional Dutch Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (N = 21,901; 49% girls; Mage = 13.78, SD = 1.25). Trends in emotional wellbeing (i.e., emotional symptoms, psychosomatic complaints, life satisfaction) were assessed by means of multiple regression analyses with survey year as a predictor, controlling for background variables. Emotional wellbeing slightly declined among adolescent boys and girls between 2009 and 2013. A substantial increase in perceived schoolwork pressure was associated with this decline in emotional wellbeing. Improved parent-adolescent communication and a decline in bullying victimization may explain why emotional wellbeing remained stable between 2013 and 2017, in spite of a further increase in schoolwork pressure. Associations between emotional wellbeing on the one hand and perceived schoolwork pressure, parent-adolescent communication, and bullying victimization on the other were stronger for girls than for boys. Overall, although increasing schoolwork pressure may be one of the drivers of declining emotional wellbeing in adolescents, in the Netherlands this negative trend was buffered by increasing support by parents and peers. Cross-national research into this topic is warranted to examine the extent to which these findings can be generalised to other high-income countries.
    • Trends van shigellosemeldingen in Nederland, 1988-2015

      Pijnacker R; Dam-Deisz WDC; Broek I van den; Broek I van den (2017-04-24)
    • Trichinella spiralis Excretory–Secretory Products Induce Tolerogenic Properties in Human Dendritic Cells via Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4

      Ilic, Nataša; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa; Cvetkovic, Jelena; Tomic, Sergej; Vucevic, Dragana Bozidar; Aranzamendi, Carmen; Colic, Miodrag; Pinelli, Elena; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana (2018-01-24)
    • Triglyceride-lowering LPL alleles combined with LDL-C-lowering alleles are associated with an additively improved lipoprotein profile.

      Ibi, Dorina; Blauw, Lisanne L; Noordam, Raymond; Dollé, Martijn E T; Jukema, J Wouter; Rosendaal, Frits R; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Neville, Matt J; Koivula, Robert; Rensen, Patrick C N; et al. (2021-05-09)
      Compared to the individual groups with genetically-influenced lower TG or lower LDL-C only, the group with combined genetically-influenced lower TG and LDL-C showed an overall independent and additive pattern of changes in metabolomic measures. Over 100 measures were different (p < 1.35 × 10-3) compared to the reference, with effect sizes and directionality being similar in NEO and OBB. Most notably, levels of all very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and LDL sub-particles were lower.
    • Trimeric SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins produced from CHO cells in bioreactors are high-quality antigens

      Pino, P; Kint, J; Kiseljak, D; Agnolon, V; Corradin, G; Kajava, AV; Rovero, P; Dijkman, R; den Hartog, G (2020-12-12)
    • Tripartite Interactions among , and Deer: Differential Interference with Transmission Cycles of Tick-Borne Pathogens.

      Krawczyk, Aleksandra I; Bakker, Julian W; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Fonville, Manoj; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Sprong, Hein; Demir, Samiye (2020-04-30)
      For the development of sustainable control of tick-borne diseases, insight is needed in biological factors that affect tick populations. Here, the ecological interactions among Ixodiphagus hookeri, Ixodes ricinus, and two vertebrate species groups were investigated in relation to their effects on tick-borne disease risk. In 1129 questing ticks, I. hookeri DNA was detected more often in I. ricinus nymphs (4.4%) than in larvae (0.5%) and not in adults. Therefore, we determined the infestation rate of I. hookeri in nymphs from 19 forest sites, where vertebrate, tick, and tick-borne pathogen communities had been previously quantified. We found higher than expected co-occurrence rates of I. hookeri with deer-associated Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and lower than expected rates with rodent-associated Borrelia afzelii and Neoehrlichia mikurensis. The prevalence of I. hookeri in nymphs varied between 0% and 16% and was positively correlated with the encounter probability of ungulates and the densities of all life stages of I. ricinus. Lastly, we investigated the emergence of I. hookeri from artificially fed, field-collected nymphs. Adult wasps emerged from seven of the 172 fed nymphs. From these observations, we inferred that I. hookeri is parasitizing I. ricinus larvae that are feeding on deer, rather than on rodents or in the vegetation. Since I. hookeri populations depend on deer abundance, the main propagation host of I. ricinus, these wasps have no apparent effect on tick populations. The presence of I. hookeri may directly interfere with the transmission cycle of A. phagocytophilum, but not with that of B. afzelii or N. mikurensis.
    • Trophic Transfer and Toxicity of (Mixtures of) Ag and TiO Nanoparticles in the Lettuce-Terrestrial Snail Food Chain.

      Wu, Juan; Bosker, Thijs; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2021-11-29)
      The increasing application of biosolids and agrochemicals containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) results in their inevitable accumulation in soil, with unknown implications along terrestrial food chains. Here, the trophic transfer of single NPs and a mixture of AgNPs and TiO2NPs from lettuce to snails and their associated impacts on snails were investigated. Both AgNPs and TiO2NPs were transferred from lettuce to snails with trophic transfer factors (defined as the ratio of the Ag/Ti concentration in snail tissues to the Ag/Ti concentration in lettuce leaves) of 0.2-1.1 for Ag and 3.8-47 for Ti. Moreover, the majority of Ag captured by snails in the AgNP-containing treatments was excreted via feces, whereas more than 70% of Ti was distributed in the digestive gland of snails in the TiO2NP-containing treatments. Additionally, AgNP-containing treatments significantly inhibited the activity of snails, while TiO2NP-containing treatments significantly reduced feces excretion of snails. Furthermore, the concurrent application of AgNPs and TiO2NPs did not affect the biomagnification and distribution patterns of Ag and Ti in snails, whereas their co-existence exhibited more severe inhibition of the growth and activity of snails than in the case of applying AgNPs or TiO2NPs alone. This highlights the possibility of nanoparticle transfer to organisms of higher trophic levels via food chains and the associated risks to ecosystem health.
    • Trophic transfer of cadmium from duckweed (Lemna Minor L.) to Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

      Xue, Yan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Huang, Jin; Wang, Dengjun; Jin, Yan (2018-01-05)
      The transfer of the toxic heavy metal Cd from duckweed (Lemna minor L.) to the freshwater fish tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) was investigated. Concentrations of Cd in different chemical forms in duckweed and in different tissues (gut, edible muscle, and remnants) of tilapia, i.e., ethanol-extractable (FE ), HCl-extractable (FHCl ), and residual fractions (FR ) were quantified, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of Cd in the tilapia body were calculated. Simple linear regression analysis was used to unravel the correlation and accumulation mechanisms of Cd along the short food chain. Our results show that with increasing exposure concentrations of Cd (0-50 µM for duckweed and 0-10 µM for tilapia), the total, FE (Fe,d ), FHCl (Fh,d ), and FR (Fr,d )-Cd concentrations in duckweed and different tissues of tilapia increased progressively. The Cd sources (aqueous or dietary) influenced the BAF for Cd accumulation in the whole body of tilapia. Furthermore, regression analyses yielded significant positive correlations (R2  > 0.96) between the Cd concentration in duckweed and in both the three parts and the whole body of tilapia. This finding suggests that Cd transfer from duckweed to tilapia can be quantitatively evaluated when tilapia is exposed only to duckweed. In addition, the linear regression between Cd accumulation in whole tilapia and Fe,d , Fh,d and Fr ,d -Cd showed that particularly the correlation with Fe,d -Cd is statistically significant (p < 0.001). The accumulated Cd concentrations and chemical forms in tilapia tissues also positively correlated with Cd sources (solution or duckweed). Compared to waterborne exposure only, duckweed especially increased the accumulation of Cd in the gut of tilapia. Taken together, our findings suggest a strong dependence of Cd accumulation and transfer from duckweed to tilapia on its chemical forms, especially on Fe,d -Cd. This knowledge may expedite more accurate risk assessment of heavy metals through aquatic food chain ecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    • TUBE project: Transport-derived ultrafines and the brain effects

      Martikainen, M-V; Aako-Saksa, P; Broek, LD; Cassee, FR; Carare, RO; Chew, S; et al. (2022-01-04)