• A bead-based suspension array for the detection of Salmonella antibodies in pig sera.

      van der Wal, Fimme J; Achterberg, René P; Maassen, Catharina B M (2018-07-27)
      Slaughter pigs are monitored for the presence of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella, using both serology and bacteriology. ELISAs used to investigate pig herds are based on the detection of antibodies against components of the Salmonella cell envelope. Nearly all Salmonella isolates in food-producing animals are serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, distributed over various serogroups as determined by the composition of their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ELISAs for Salmonella serology are usually based on serogroup B and C1 LPS, often combined with serogroup D or E LPS. Although C2 LPS may improve serology, use of C2 LPS in a broad ELISA was never achieved.
    • Bedaquiline resistance: Its emergence, mechanism and prevention.

      Nguyen, Thi Van Anh; Anthony, Richard M; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Vu, Dinh Hoa; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C (2017-11-08)
      Bedaquiline, a new anti-tuberculosis drug, has already been used in more than 50 countries. The emergence of bedaquiline resistance is alarming, as it may result in the rapid loss of this new drug. This paper aims to review currently identified mechanisms of resistance, the emergence of bedaquiline resistance, and discuss strategies to delay the resistance acquisition. In vitro and clinical studies as well as reports from the compassionate use have identified the threat of bedaquiline resistance and cross-resistance with clofazimine, emphasizing the crucial need for the systematic surveillance of resistance. Currently known mechanisms of resistance include mutations within the atpE, Rv0678 and pepQ genes. The development of standardized drug susceptibility testing (DST) for bedaquiline is urgently needed.Understanding any target and non-target based mechanisms is essential to minimize the resistance development and treatment failure, help to develop appropriate DST for bedaquiline and genetic based resistance screening.
    • Beehive products as bioindicators of antimicrobial resistance contamination in the environment.

      Laconi, Andrea; Tolosi, Roberta; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Mazzuccato, Matteo; Ferrè, Nicola; Capolongo, Francesca; Merlanti, Roberta; Piccirillo, Alessandra (2021-10-22)
      The use of antimicrobials in agricultural, veterinary and medical practice exerts selective pressure on environmental microbiota, promoting the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), a global concern for the One Health Initiative Task Force (OHITF). Honeybees have been studied as bioindicators of AMR in the environment, but little is known about beehive products like honey and pollen. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of AMR genes (ARGs) in beehive products and investigated their origins. Specifically, possible associations between ARGs, microbiota and other characteristics of different honey and pollen samples, including country of origin, flower type, type of commercial distribution and environmental factors, such as land use, weather and composition of the environment surrounding the beehives were investigated. We found that beehive products harboured ARGs conferring resistance to β-lactams, macrolides, (fluoro)quinolones and polymyxins. Most samples possessed resistance to multiple antimicrobial classes, with honey and pollen showing similar ARG profiles. Even if Lactobacillus and Acinetobacter genera were common in the microbial communities of both honey and pollen, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Bombella defined honey microbiota, while Pseudomonas and Vibrio were enriched in pollen. ErmB and blaTEM-1 co-occurred with Lactobacillus and Fructobacillus, while positive associations between β-lactams and macrolides and anthropogenic environments (i.e. industrial and commercial areas and non-irrigated arable lands) were found. Altogether, our findings suggest that ARGs in honey and pollen might originate from the honeybee foraging environment, and that the beehive products can be used as bioindicators of the AMR environmental contamination.
    • Behavioural insights and the evolving COVID-19 pandemic.

      de Bruin, Marijn; Suk, Jonathan E; Baggio, Marianna; Blomquist, Sarah Earnshaw; Falcon, María; Forjaz, Maria João; Godoy-Ramirez, Karina; Leurs, Mariken; Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Romay-Barja, María; et al. (2022-05-09)
    • Beijing/W genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance.

      Glynn, Judith R; Kremer, Kristin; Borgdorff, Martien W; Rodriguez, Mar Pujades; Soolingen, Dick van (2006-05-01)
      Beijing/W genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis is widespread, may be increasing, and may have a predilection for drug resistance. Individual-level data on >29,000 patients from 49 studies in 35 countries were combined to assess the Beijing genotype's prevalence worldwide, trends over time and with age, and associations with drug resistance. We found 4 patterns for Beijing/W genotype tuberculosis (TB): 1) endemic, not associated with drug resistance (high level in most of East Asia, lower level in parts of the United States); 2) epidemic, associated with drug resistance (high level in Cuba, the former Soviet Union, Vietnam, and South Africa, lower level in parts of Western Europe); 3) epidemic but drug sensitive (Malawi, Argentina); and 4) very low level or absent (parts of Europe, Africa). This study confirms that Beijing/W genotype TB is an emerging pathogen in several areas and a predominant endemic strain in others; it is frequently associated with drug resistance.
    • Benchmarking laboratory processes to characterise low-biomass respiratory microbiota.

      Hasrat, Raiza; Kool, Jolanda; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Chu, Mei Ling J N; Kuiling, Sjoerd; Groot, James A; van Logchem, Elske M; Fuentes, Susana; Franz, Eelco; Bogaert, Debby; et al. (2021-08-25)
    • Benchmarking the nutrition-related commitments and practices of major Belgian food companies.

      Van Dam, Iris; Reimes, Naomi; Vandevijvere, Stefanie (2022-04-07)
    • Benchtop NMR spectroscopy in the analysis of substandard and falsified medicines as well as illegal drugs.

      Keizers, Peter H J; Bakker, Frank; Ferreira, José; Wackers, Paul F K; van Kollenburg, Dion; van der Aa, Eva; van Beers, Amy (2019-10-21)
    • Benefits and challenges in using sero-prevalence data to inform models for measles and rubella elimination.

      Winter, A K; Martinez, M E; Cutts, F T; Moss, W J; Ferrari, M; McKee, A; Lessler, J; Hayford, K; Wallinga, J; Metcalf, C J E (2018-03-19)
      Control efforts for measles and rubella are intensifying globally. It becomes increasingly important to identify and reach remaining susceptible populations as elimination is approached. Serological surveys for measles and rubella can potentially measure susceptibility directly, but their use remains rare. Here, using simulations, we outline key subtleties in interpretation associated with the dynamic context of age-specific immunity, highlighting how the patterns of immunity predicted from disease surveillance and vaccination coverage data may be misleading. High quality representative sero-surveys could provide a more accurate assessment of immunity if challenges of conducting, analyzing, and interpreting them are overcome. We frame the core disease control and elimination questions that could be addressed by improved serological tools, discussing challenges and suggesting approaches to increase the feasibility and sustainability of the tool. Accounting for the dynamical context, sero-surveys could play a key role in efforts to achieve and sustain elimination.
    • Benefits and harms of high-dose haemodiafiltration versus high-flux haemodialysis: the comparison of high-dose haemodiafiltration with high-flux haemodialysis (CONVINCE) trial protocol.

      Blankestijn, Peter J; Fischer, Kathrin I; Barth, Claudia; Cromm, Krister; Canaud, Bernard; Davenport, Andrew; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Roes, Kit C; Rose, Matthias; et al. (2020-02-05)
    • Benzodiazepinen uit het basispakket. Welke aspecten droegen bij aan stopzetten van de vergoeding?

      Rotteveel, Adriënne H; Lambooij, Mattijs S; de Wit, G Ardine (2021-09-16)
    • Berberine and Obatoclax Inhibit SARS-Cov-2 Replication in Primary Human Nasal Epithelial Cells In Vitro.

      Varghese, Finny S; van Woudenbergh, Esther; Overheul, Gijs J; Eleveld, Marc J; Kurver, Lisa; van Heerbeek, Niels; van Laarhoven, Arjan; Miesen, Pascal; den Hartog, Gerco; de Jonge, Marien I; et al. (2021-02-11)
    • Best Paper Award.

      Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2018-01-01)
    • Best practices for developmental toxicity assessment for classification and labeling.

      Daston, George; Piersma, Aldert; Attias, Leonello; Beekhuijzen, Manon; Chen, Connie; Foreman, Jennifer; Hallmark, Nina; Leconte, Isabelle (2018-05-14)
      Many chemicals are going through a hazard-based classification and labeling process in Europe. Because of the significant public health implications, the best science must be applied in assessing developmental toxicity data. The European Teratology Society and Health and Environmental Sciences Institute co-organized a workshop to consider best practices, including data quality and consistency, interpretation of developmental effects in the presence of maternal toxicity, human relevance of animal data, and limits of chemical classes. Recommendations included larger historical control databases, more pharmacokinetic studies in pregnant animals for dose setting and study interpretation, generation of mechanistic data to resolve questions about whether maternal toxicity is causative of developmental toxicity, and more rigorous specifications for what constitutes a chemical class. It is our hope that these recommendations will form the basis for subsequent consensus workshops and other scientific activities designed to improve the scientific robustness of data interpretation for classification and labeling.
    • Bestrijding van aviaire influenza onder pluimvee: vaccinatie als aanvullende mogelijkheid

      Aarle, P van; Breytenbach, J; Schueller, S (RIVM, 2006-08-01)
      Since mid-December 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has caused an epidemic in the Asian poultry sector and avian influenza cases have been reported in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Human fatalities catapulted avian influenza into the public arena with fears of a possible global influenza pandemic in case the virus gains capacity to spread from human to human. What should be the way forward? The article describes control options and discusses the role vaccination can play in combating specifically under European conditions and in dynamic poultry markets in other countries.
    • Beter zicht op zeer zorgwekkende stoffen.

      Janssen, N; Bodar, C; Lindeijer, H; Duintjer, K (2019-07-08)
    • Better off at home? Effects of nursing home eligibility on costs, hospitalizations and survival.

      Bakx, Pieter; Wouterse, Bram; van Doorslaer, Eddy; Wong, Albert (2020-07-06)
    • Biennial Pattern of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in The Netherlands and a Shifting Age Distribution Following a Low Rotavirus Season, 2010-2016.

      Verberk, Janneke D M; Pijnacker, Roan; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; Franz, Eelco; Vennema, Harry; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Hahné, Susan J M; de Melker, Hester E (2017-12-22)
      A hyper-endemic rotavirus season was expected after a low-endemic 2014 season in the Netherlands. Rotavirus detections were however similar in 2015 and lower in 2016 compared with 2010-2013. Gastroenteritis consultations rates were also similar in 2015, but the age-distribution shifted to older children due to an accumulation of non-infected children. Results indicate a possible shift to a biennial rotavirus pattern.