• Predicting soil N supply and yield parameters in peat grasslands.

      Deru JGC; Bloem J; Goede R de; Hoekstra N; Keidel H; Kloen H; Nierop A; Rutgers M; Schouten T (2019-02)
    • One-carbon metabolism biomarkers and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

      Vrieling, Alina; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Ros, Martine M; Kampman, Ellen; Aben, Katja K; Büchner, Frederike L; Jansen, Eugène H; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Steffen; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Sieri, Sabina; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Jakszyn, Paula; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María-José; Ehrnström, Roy; Malm, Johan; Ljungberg, Börje; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Riboli, Elio; Kiemeney, Lambertus A (2019-01-29)
      Published associations between dietary folate and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. This nested case-control analysis within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) investigated associations between pre-diagnostic serum folate, homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas of the bladder (UCC). A total of 824 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 824 cohort members. Serum folate, homocysteine, and vitamins B6 and B12 were measured. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total, aggressive, and non-aggressive UCC were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, and other potential confounders. Additionally, statistical interaction with smoking status was assessed. A halving in serum folate concentrations was moderately associated with risk of UCC (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.98-1.43), in particular aggressive UCC (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02-1.75; p-heterogeneity = 0.19). Compared to never smokers in the highest quartile of folate concentrations, this association seemed only apparent among current smokers in the lowest quartile of folate concentrations (OR: 6.26; 95% CI: 3.62-10.81, p-interaction = 0.07). Dietary folate was not associated with aggressive UCC (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.81-1.95; p-heterogeneity = 0.14). No association was observed between serum homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and risk of UCC. This study suggests that lower serum folate concentrations are associated with increased UCC risk, in particular aggressive UCC. Residual confounding by smoking cannot be ruled out and these findings require confirmation in future studies with multiple measurements.
    • The effect of capping agents on the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Danio rerio embryos.

      Abramenko, N; Demidova, T B; Krutyakov, Yu A; Zherebin, P M; Krysanov, E Y; Kustov, L M; Peijnenburg, W (2019-01-29)
      Addition of capping agents like surfactants and polymers during the synthesis of nanoparticles may affect the stability and toxicity of dispersions of nanoparticles. This study revealed the impact of anionic, cationic, and amphoteric surfactants and a cationic polymer on the physical and chemical properties, stability and behavior of silver nanomaterials, as well as on the toxicity of nanosized silver particles with respect to zebrafish embryos. Some of the stabilizers applied were shown to significantly affect embryos of Danio rerio. Colloidal dispersions of stabilized silver nanoparticles were demonstrated to induce a complex mechanism of toxicity with respect to embryos of D. rerio, which is mainly explained by the toxicity of the organic ligand, while other parameters are somewhat inferior. The newly generated data on the toxicity of nanoparticles and their stabilizers with respect to D. rerio embryos reveal the complexity of the toxicity mechanism of nanoparticles impacting living systems.
    • Biological activities associated with the volatile compound 2,5-bis(1-methylethyl)-pyrazine.

      Janssens, Thierry K S; Tyc, Olaf; Besselink, Harrie; de Boer, Wietse; Garbeva, Paolina (2019-01-29)
      Pyrazines are 1,4- diazabenzene based volatile organic compounds and known for their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In the present study we assessed the antimicrobial activity of 2,5-bis(1-methylethyl)-pyrazine, produced by Paenibacillus sp. AD87 during co-culture with Burkholderia sp. AD24. In addition, we were using transcriptional reporter assays in E. coli and mammalian cells to decipher the possible mode of action. Bacterial and mammalian luciferase reporter strains were deployed to elucidate antimicrobial and toxicological effects of 2,5-bis(1-methylethyl)-pyrazine. At high levels of exposure, 2,5-bis(1-methylethyl)-pyrazine exerted strong DNA damage response. At lower concentrations, cell-wall damage response was observed. The activity was corroborated by a general toxicity reporter assay in E. coli ΔampD, defective in peptidoglycan turnover. The maximum E. coli cell-wall stress activity was measured at a concentration close to the onset of the mammalian cytotoxicity, while other adverse outcome pathways, such as the activation of aryl hydrocarbon and estrogenic receptor, the p53 tumor suppressor, and the oxidative stress related Nrf2 transcription factor, were induced at elevated concentrations compared to the response of mammalian cells. Because of its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity at lower concentrations and the relatively low mammalian toxicity, 2,5-bis(1-methylethyl)-pyrazine is a potential bio-based fumigant with possible applications in food industry, agriculture or logistics.
    • Understanding conflicting views of endocrine disruptor experts: a pilot study using argumentation analysis

      Clahsen, SCS; van Klaveren, HS; Vermeire, TG; van Kamp, I; Garssen, B; Piersma, AH; Lebret, E (2019-01-28)
    • Treatment effectiveness of azithromycin and doxycycline in uncomplicated rectal and vaginal Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women: a multicentre observational study (FemCure).

      Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; Wolffs, Petra F G; Vries, Henry de; Götz, Hannelore M; Heijman, Titia; Bruisten, Sylvia; Eppings, Lisanne; Hogewoning, Arjan; Steenbakkers, Mieke; Lucchesi, Mayk; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Hoebe, Christian J P A (2019-01-28)
      Rectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are prevalent in women visiting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) outpatient clinic, but it remains unclear what the most effective treatment is. We assessed the effectiveness of doxycycline and azithromycin for the treatment of rectal and vaginal chlamydia in women. This study is part of a prospective multicentre cohort study (FemCure). Treatment consisted of doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 7 days) in rectal CT positive women, and of azithromycin (1 g single dose) in vaginal positive women who were rectally untested or rectally negative. Participants self-collected rectal and vaginal samples at enrolment (treatment timepoint) and during 4 weeks of follow-up. The endpoint was microbiological cure by a negative nucleic acid amplification test at 4 weeks. Differences between cure proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. We analysed 416 patients of whom 319 had both rectal and vaginal chlamydia at enrolment, 22 had rectal chlamydia only, and 75 had vaginal chlamydia only. In 341 rectal infections, microbiological cure in azithromycin treated women was 78.5% (95%CI: 72.6 to 83.7, n=164/209) and 95.5% (95%CI: 91.0 to 98.2, n=126/132) in doxycycline treated women (difference 17.0%, 95%CI: 9.6 to 24.7, p<0.001). In 394 vaginal infections, cure was 93.5% (95%CI: 90.1 to 96.1,n=246/263) in azithromycin treated women and 95.4% (95%CI: 90.9 to 98.2,n=125/131) in doxycycline treated women (difference 1.9%, 95%CI: -3.6 to 6.7,p=0.504). The effectiveness of doxycycline is high and exceeds that of azithromycin for the treatment of rectal CT infections in women.
    • Hydrophobic Organic Pollutants in Soils and Dusts at Electronic Waste Recycling Sites: Occurrence and Possible Impacts of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers.

      Ohajinwa, Chimere May; Van Bodegom, Peter M; Xie, Qing; Chen, Jingwen; Vijver, Martina G; Osibanjo, Oladele O; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2019-01-28)
      Concerns about the adverse consequences of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is increasing, because e-waste contains some hazardous substances such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) which is used as flame retardants in electronics. There is dearth of information on the concentrations of PBDEs and the pattern of distribution at the various e-waste recycling sites in Nigeria. This study therefore measured the concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners, in top soils (0⁻10 cm) and in various dust samples from different e-waste recycling sites (burning, dismantling, repair). PBDE concentrations at e-waste sites were compared with the concentrations in samples from corresponding control sites in three study locations in Nigeria (Lagos, Ibadan, and Aba). There were significant differences in the level of PBDEs congeners between each of the e-waste recycling sites and the corresponding control sites. The levels of PBDEs at the e-waste recycling sites exceeded the levels at the controls sites by a factor of 100 s to 1000 s. In general, PBDE concentrations at the e-waste sites decreased with the intensity of the e-waste recycling activities: burning sites > dismantling sites > repair sites > control sites. Our results suggest that the informal e-waste recycling has negative impacts on the enviroment and human health.
    • The respiratory microbiota: new insights into pulmonary tuberculosis.

      Eshetie, Setegn; van Soolingen, Dick (2019-01-25)
      Previous studies demonstrated that the diversity and composition of respiratory microbiota in TB patients were different from healthy individuals. Therefore, the aim of the present analysis was to estimate the relative proportion of respiratory microbiota at phylum and genus levels among TB cases and healthy controls. The PubMed and Google Scholar online databases were searched to retrieve relevant studies for the analysis. The statistical analysis was done using STATA version 11, pooled estimates are presented using graphs. The summary of findings in included studies is also presented in Table 1. The phylum level analysis shows that the pooled proportions of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Crenarchaeota were determined among tuberculosis patients and healthy controls. In brief, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla in both TB cases and healthy controls, composing 39.9 and 22.7% in TB cases and 39.4 and 19.5% in healthy controls, respectively. The genus level analysis noted that Streptococcus (35.01%), Neisseria (27.1%), Prevotella (9.02%) and Veillonella (7.8%) were abundant in TB patients. The Prevotella (36.9%), Gammaproteobacteria (22%), Streptococcus (19.2%) and Haemophilus (15.4%) were largely seen in healthy controls. Interestingly, Veillonella, Rothia, Leuconostoc were unique to TB cases, whereas Lactobacillus, and Gammaproteobacteria, Haemophilus, and Actinobacillus were identified only in healthy controls. The composition of the respiratory microbiota in TB patients and healthy controls were quite different. More deep sequencing studies are needed to explore the microbial variation in the respiratory system in connection with TB.
    • SPECIES SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS FOR 12,386 CHEMICALS.

      Posthuma, Leo; van Gils, Jos; Zijp, Michiel C; van de Meent, Dik; de Zwart, Dick (2019-01-24)
      The present paper considers the collection and use of ecotoxicity data for risk assessment with Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) of chemical pollution in surface water. SSDs are used to quantify the likelihood that critical effect levels are exceeded. This fits to the European Water Framework Directive, which suggest using models to assess the likelihood that chemicals affect water quality for management prioritization. We derived SSDs based on chronic and acute ecotoxicity test data for 12,386 compounds. The log-normal SSDs are characterized by the median and the standard deviation of log-transformed ecotoxicity data and by a quality score. A case study illustrates the utility of SSDs for water quality assessment and management prioritization. We quantified the chronic and acute mixture toxic pressure of mixture exposures for >22,000 water bodies in Europe for 1,760 chemicals for which we had both exposure and hazard data. Results show the likelihood of mixture exposures exceeding a negligible effect level and increasing species loss, respectively. The SSDs presented in this paper represent a versatile and comprehensive approach to prevent, assess and manage chemical pollution problems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    • Combined effects of dissolved organic matter, pH, ionic strength and halides on photodegradation of oxytetracycline in simulated estuarine waters.

      Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhao, Jianchen; Zhou, Yangjian; Qu, Jiao; Chen, Jingwen; Li, Chao; Qin, Weichao; Zhao, Yahui; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2019-01-23)
      Estuarine waters of variable compositions are sinks for many micropollutants. The varying water properties can impact the photodegradation of organic pollutants. In this study, the combined effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM), pH, ionic strength, and halides on the photodegradation of the model organic pollutant oxytetracycline (OTC) were investigated. Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) was used as a representative DOM. The results showed that the observed photolysis rate constant (kobs) of OTC increased rapidly upon increase of pH. SRNOM induced a 11.0-17.9% decrease of the kobs for OTC. In the presence of SRNOM, the ionic strength and specific halide effects promote OTC photodegradation with a 39.2-84.2% and 7.1-28.8% increase of the kobs, respectively. The effects of SRNOM, ionic strength and halides on OTC photodegradation are pH-dependent. Direct photolysis half-lives (t1/2) of OTC were estimated in view of the more important role of direct photolysis compared to indirect photolysis. The estimated t1/2 values decreased from 187.4-206.6 d to 34.4-36.6 d as the pH increases in the Yellow River estuarine region. The results of this research demonstrate that the photodegradation rate of OTC increases rapidly in the gradient from river water to marine water in estuarine regions.
    • The role of analytical chemistry in exposure science: Focus on the aquatic environment.

      Hernández, F; Bakker, J; Bijlsma, L; de Boer, J; Botero-Coy, A M; Bruinen de Bruin, Y; Fischer, S; Hollender, J; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B; Lamoree, M; López, F J; Laak, T L Ter; van Leerdam, J A; Sancho, J V; Schymanski, E L; de Voogt, P; Hogendoorn, E A (2019-01-23)
      Exposure science, in its broadest sense, studies the interactions between stressors (chemical, biological, and physical agents) and receptors (e.g. humans and other living organisms, and non-living items like buildings), together with the associated pathways and processes potentially leading to negative effects on human health and the environment. The aquatic environment may contain thousands of compounds, many of them still unknown, that can pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. Due to the unquestionable importance of the aquatic environment, one of the main challenges in the field of exposure science is the comprehensive characterization and evaluation of complex environmental mixtures beyond the classical/priority contaminants to new emerging contaminants. The role of advanced analytical chemistry to identify and quantify potential chemical risks, that might cause adverse effects to the aquatic environment, is essential. In this paper, we present the strategies and tools that analytical chemistry has nowadays, focused on chromatography hyphenated to (high-resolution) mass spectrometry because of its relevance in this field. Key issues, such as the application of effect direct analysis to reduce the complexity of the sample, the investigation of the huge number of transformation/degradation products that may be present in the aquatic environment, the analysis of urban wastewater as a source of valuable information on our lifestyle and substances we consumed and/or are exposed to, or the monitoring of drinking water, are discussed in this article. The trends and perspectives for the next few years are also highlighted, when it is expected that new developments and tools will allow a better knowledge of chemical composition in the aquatic environment. This will help regulatory authorities to protect water bodies and to advance towards improved regulations that enable practical and efficient abatements for environmental and public health protection.
    • Evaluation and enumeration of online test providers for sexually transmitted infections, specifically chlamydia, in the Netherlands.

      den Daas, Chantal; Sukel, Bob; Bos, Hanna; van den Broek, Ingrid (2019-01-22)
      Online testing for STIs might complement regular care provided by general practitioners or STI clinics. Two types of online testing can be distinguished, self-testing and self-sampling (sending sample to a laboratory for diagnosis). Online testing can occur without consultation with a healthcare professional, therefore information given by providers is essential for informed decision-making. We aimed to enumerate online test providers in the Netherlands focusing on chlamydia tests, to evaluate information using quality indicators and to gain insight on the proportion of online testing in the STI testing arena. We performed a systematic internet search to identify online STI test providers. Twenty quality indicators were evaluated on their websites; indicator scores were weighted by level of importance (expert opinion). High scoring providers were recommended, on the condition that the sensitivity and specificity of the test were above 95% and providers included a follow-up procedure in case of a positive result. Finally, providers were contacted to inquire about the number of sold tests, positivity rates and demographic characteristics of testers. Five out of 12 identified self-sample test providers could be recommended, versus zero out of eight self-test providers. Self-sample test providers gave complete and correct information on more indicators (67%) compared with self-test providers (38%). In 2015, an estimated 30 000-40 000 self-sample tests were purchased, and 12 000-25 000 self-tests, which is roughly 10%-15% of the total number of STI tests. This evaluation shows that some online self-sample test providers could be put forward as way of STI testing complementing regular testing options. None of the self-test providers were recommended. Regularly evaluating online test providers is advised to improve quality of the information on the websites. Finally, self-testing might not be suited for all populations as most information is provided in written format only.
    • Regional differences in chlamydia and gonorrhoeae positivity rate among heterosexual STI clinic visitors in the Netherlands: contribution of client and regional characteristics as assessed by cross-sectional surveillance data.

      Götz, Hannelore M; van Oeffelen, Louise Aam; Hoebe, Christian J P A; van Benthem, Birgit Hb (2019-01-21)
      To assess to what extent triage criteria, client and regional characteristics explain regional differences in Retrospective cross-sectional study on the Dutch STI surveillance database of all 24 STI clinics. STI clinic visits of heterosexual persons in 2015 with a Ct (n=101 495) and/or Ng test (n=101 081). Ct and Ng positivity and 95% CI was assessed for each STI clinic. Two-level logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the percentage change in regional variance (PCV) after adding triage criteria (model 1), other client characteristics (model 2) and regional characteristics (model 3) to the empty model. The contribution of single characteristics was determined after removing them from model 3.
    • Changes in dietary intake, plasma carotenoids and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in breast cancer survivors after a lifestyle intervention: results from a single-arm trial.

      Buckland, G; Travier, N; Arribas, L; Del Barco, S; Pernas, S; Zamora, E; Bellet, M; Cirauqui, B; Margelí, M; Muñoz, M; Tusquets, I; Arcusa, A; Javierre, C; Moreno, F; Valverde, Y; Jansen, E; Chajès, V; Castro, C; Agudo, A (2019-01-21)
      The influence of nutrition on breast cancer prognosis is still inconclusive and therefore dietary interventions incorporating dietary biomarkers are needed to confirm compliance with dietary goals and clarify biological mechanisms. The present study assessed whether a lifestyle intervention in breast cancer survivors could affect dietary biomarkers of fruit and vegetables and fatty acids. In this phase II single-arm trial, 37 overweight/obese early stage breast cancer patients completed a 12-week diet and exercise intervention. The intervention involved 1-h weekly diet sessions delivered by a dietician and 75-min bi-weekly physical activity sessions of moderate-to-high intensity led by trained monitors. Before and after the intervention, three 24-h dietary recalls were carried out to calculate nutrient intakes and, in addition, blood samples were taken to measure plasma carotenoids, vitamin E and retinol concentrations and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EFA) composition. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to assess changes in dietary and biomarkers measurements over the intervention period. After the intervention, there was a significant increase in the intake of dietary carotenoids (+15.1% compared to baseline) but not plasma carotenoids levels (+6.3%). Regarding the EFA levels, we observed a significant decrease in percentage of saturated fatty acids (-1.4%) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-2.9%) and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids (1.7%) and total and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (by 13.1% and 13.7%, respectively). A favourable decrease in the ratio of long-chain n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-9.1%) was also observed. After a short-term diet and exercise intervention in overweight/obese breast cancer survivors, we observed significant changes in dietary nutrients and fatty acid biomarkers, suggesting positive dietary changes that could be relevant for breast cancer prognosis.
    • Evaluation of the Recipe Function in Popular Dietary Smartphone Applications, with Emphasize on Features Relevant for Nutrition Assessment in Large-Scale Studies.

      Zhang, Liangzi; Nawijn, Eline; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Ocké, Marga (2019-01-19)
      Nutrient estimations from mixed dishes require detailed information collection and should account for nutrient loss during cooking. This study aims to make an inventory of recipe creating features in popular food diary apps from a research perspective and to evaluate their nutrient calculation. A total of 12 out of 57 screened popular dietary assessment apps included a recipe function and were scored based on a pre-defined criteria list. Energy and nutrient content of three recipes calculated by the apps were compared with a reference procedure, which takes nutrient retention due to cooking into account. The quality of the recipe function varies across selected apps with a mean score of 3.0 (out of 5). More relevant differences (larger than 5% of the Daily Reference Intake) between apps and the reference were observed in micronutrients (49%) than in energy and macronutrients (20%). The primary source of these differences lies in the variation in food composition databases underlying each app. Applying retention factors decreased the micronutrient contents from 0% for calcium in all recipes to more than 45% for vitamins B6, B12, and folate in one recipe. Overall, recipe features and their ability to capture true nutrient intake are limited in current apps.
    • Is quality of life impairment associated with chronic diseases dependent on educational level?

      Galenkamp, Henrike; van Oers, Hans A M; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien (2019-01-18)
      Previous research indicates that quality of life impairment as a result of chronic diseases differs between socioeconomic groups, but the pattern seems to vary between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes. We tested for a one-item and a multi-item outcome whether associations between diseases and HRQOL varied between educational levels. Data come from Dutch participants of HELIUS (N =4615, aged 18-70). Education was defined as low, middle or high. Myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and depressed mood were measured using physical examination and/or self-report. Outcomes were fair/poor self-rated health (SRH) and physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) SF-12 scores. Interaction terms and relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) were used as measures of additive interaction. SRH and PCS were worst in lower educated participants, whereas MCS was worst in middle educated participants. Out of thirty-six interactions tested, four were statistically significant, with risks of poor HRQOL being both larger and smaller in low vs. high education groups. Obesity was associated with smaller risk of fair/poor SRH in low vs. high educated [RERI=-2.49 (-4.66; -0.33)]. Depressed mood was associated with more [b=-3.34 (-6.14; -0.54)] and hypertension with less reduction in PCS [b=1.23 (0.18; 2.27)] in middle vs. high educated. Depressed mood was highly associated with MCS, but less so in middle vs. high educated [b=4.09 (0.72; 7.47)]. Despite a higher prevalence of diseases in low education groups, if measured in absolute terms, most diseases were not associated with larger impairment of HRQOL in lower vs. higher educated groups, regardless of the outcome measure used.
    • Repeated gestational exposure to diesel engine exhaust affects the fetal olfactory system and alters olfactory-based behavior in rabbit offspring.

      Bernal-Meléndez, Estefanía; Lacroix, Marie-Christine; Bouillaud, Pascaline; Callebert, Jacques; Olivier, Benoit; Persuy, Marie-Annick; Durieux, Didier; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Aioun, Josiane; Cassee, Flemming; Couturier-Tarrade, Anne; Valentino, Sarah; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Schroeder, Henri; Baly, Christine (2019-01-17)
      Airborne pollution, especially from diesel exhaust (DE), is known to have a negative effect on the central nervous system in exposed human populations. However, the consequences of gestational exposure to DE on the fetal brain remain poorly explored, with various effects depending on the conditions of exposure, as well as little information on early developmental stages. We investigated the short-term effects of indirect DE exposure throughout gestation on the developing brain using a rabbit model. We analyzed fetal olfactory tissues at the end of gestation and tested behaviors relevant to pups' survival at birth. Pregnant dams were exposed by nose-only inhalation to either clean air or DE with a content of particles (DEP) adjusted to 1 mg/m At GD28, nano-sized particles were observed in cilia and cytoplasm of the olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory mucosa and in the cytoplasm of periglomerular cells in the olfactory bulbs of exposed fetuses. Moreover, cellular and axonal hypertrophies were observed throughout olfactory tissues. Concomitantly, fetal serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems were affected in the olfactory bulbs. Moreover, the neuromodulatory homeostasis was disturbed in a sex-dependent manner in olfactory tissues. At birth, the olfactory sensitivity to 2MB2 was reduced in exposed PND2 pups. Gestational exposure to DE alters olfactory tissues and affects monoaminergic neurotransmission in fetuses' olfactory bulbs, resulting in an alteration of olfactory-based behaviors at birth. Considering the anatomical and functional continuum between the olfactory system and other brain structures, and due to the importance of monoamine neurotransmission in the plasticity of neural circuits, such alterations could participate to disturbances in higher integrative structures, with possible long-term neurobehavioral consequences.
    • Potential gains in health expectancy by improving lifestyle: an application for European regions.

      Füssenich, Koen; Nusselder, Wilma J; Lhachimi, Stefan K; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Feenstra, Talitha F (2019-01-17)
      Prevention aiming at smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI could potentially bring large gains in life expectancy (LE) and health expectancy measures such as Healthy Life Years (HLY) and Life Expectancy in Good Perceived Health (LEGPH) in the European Union. However, the potential gains might differ by region. A Sullivan life table model was applied for 27 European countries to calculate the impact of alternative scenarios of lifestyle behavior on life and health expectancy. Results were then pooled over countries to present the potential gains in HLY and LEGPH for four European regions. Simulations show that up to 4 years of extra health expectancy can be gained by getting all countries to the healthiest levels of lifestyle observed in EU countries. This is more than the 2 years to be gained in life expectancy. Generally, Eastern Europe has the lowest LE, HLY, and LEGPH. Even though the largest gains in LEPGH and HLY can also be made in Eastern Europe, the gap in LE, HLY, and LEGPH can only in a small part be closed by changing smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI. Based on the current data, up to 4 years of good health could be gained by adopting lifestyle as seen in the best-performing countries. Only a part of the lagging health expectancy of Eastern Europe can potentially be solved by improvements in lifestyle involving smoking and BMI. Before it is definitely concluded that lifestyle policy for alcohol use is of relatively little importance compared to smoking or BMI, as our findings suggest, better data should be gathered in all European countries concerning alcohol use and the odds ratios of overconsumption of alcohol.
    • Cardiovascular Risk Factors Associated With Venous Thromboembolism.

      Gregson, John; Kaptoge, Stephen; Bolton, Thomas; Pennells, Lisa; Willeit, Peter; Burgess, Stephen; Bell, Steven; Sweeting, Michael; Rimm, Eric B; Kabrhel, Christopher; Zöller, Bengt; Assmann, Gerd; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Folsom, Aaron R; Arndt, Volker; Fletcher, Astrid; Norman, Paul E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Kitamura, Akihiko; Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K; Whincup, Peter H; Knuiman, Matthew; Salomaa, Veikko; Meisinger, Christa; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kavousi, Maryam; Völzke, Henry; Cooper, Jackie A; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Casiglia, Edoardo; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Després, Jean-Pierre; Simons, Leon; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Björkelund, Cecilia; Notdurfter, Marlene; Kromhout, Daan; Price, Jackie; Sutherland, Susan E; Sundström, Johan; Kauhanen, Jussi; Gallacher, John; Beulens, Joline W J; Dankner, Rachel; Cooper, Cyrus; Giampaoli, Simona; Deen, Jason F; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Kuller, Lewis H; Rosengren, Annika; Svensson, Peter J; Nagel, Dorothea; Crespo, Carlos J; Brenner, Hermann; Albertorio-Diaz, Juan R; Atkins, Robert; Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin; Njølstad, Inger; Lawlor, Deborah A; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Selmer, Randi Marie; Trevisan, Maurizio; Verschuren, W M Monique; Greenland, Philip; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Lowe, Gordon D O; Wood, Angela M; Butterworth, Adam S; Thompson, Simon G; Danesh, John; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Meade, Tom (2019-01-16)
      It is uncertain to what extent established cardiovascular risk factors are associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). To estimate the associations of major cardiovascular risk factors with VTE, ie, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. This study included individual participant data mostly from essentially population-based cohort studies from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (ERFC; 731 728 participants; 75 cohorts; years of baseline surveys, February 1960 to June 2008; latest date of follow-up, December 2015) and the UK Biobank (421 537 participants; years of baseline surveys, March 2006 to September 2010; latest date of follow-up, February 2016). Participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline were included. Data were analyzed from June 2017 to September 2018. A panel of several established cardiovascular risk factors.