Dam, Veerle; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Peters, Sanne A E; Burgess, Stephen; Wood, Angela M; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Moons, Karel G M; Oliver-Williams, Clare; et al. (2019-02-22)
Earlier age at menopause has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but the shape of association and role of established cardiovascular risk factors remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the associations between menopausal characteristics and CHD risk; the shape of the association between age at menopause and CHD risk; and the extent to which these associations are explained by established cardiovascular risk factors. We used data from EPIC-CVD, a case-cohort study, which includes data from 23 centres from 10 European countries. We included only women, of whom 10 880 comprise the randomly selected sub-cohort, supplemented with 4522 cases outside the sub-cohort. We conducted Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the underlying time scale, stratified by country and adjusted for relevant confounders. After confounder and intermediate adjustment, post-menopausal women were not at higher CHD risk compared with pre-menopausal women. Among post-menopausal women, earlier menopause was linearly associated with higher CHD risk [HRconfounder and intermediate adjusted per-year decrease = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.03, p = 0.001]. Women with a surgical menopause were at higher risk of CHD compared with those with natural menopause (HRconfounder-adjusted = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.10-1.42, p < 0.001), but this attenuated after additional adjustment for age at menopause and intermediates (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.96-1.29, p = 0.15). A proportion of the association was explained by cardiovascular risk factors. Earlier and surgical menopause were associated with higher CHD risk. These associations could partially be explained by differences in conventional cardiovascular risk factors. These women might benefit from close monitoring of cardiovascular risk factors and disease.
Abbas, M; de Kraker, M E A; Aghayev, E; Astagneau, P; Aupee, M; Behnke, M; Bull, A; Choi, H J; DE Greeff, S C; Elgohari, S; et al. (2018-12-07)
Surveillance of surgical site infections (SSIs) is a core component of effective infection control practices, though its impact has not been quantified on a large scale. To determine the time-trend of SSI rates in surveillance networks. SSI surveillance networks provided procedure-specific data on numbers of SSIs and operations, stratified by hospitals' year of participation in the surveillance, to capture length of participation as an exposure. Pooled and procedure-specific random-effects Poisson regression was performed to obtain yearly rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and including surveillance network as random intercept. Of 36 invited networks, 17 networks from 15 high-income countries across Asia, Australia and Europe participated in the study. Aggregated data on 17 surgical procedures (cardiovascular, digestive, gynaecological-obstetrical, neurosurgical, and orthopaedic) were collected, resulting in data concerning 5,831,737 operations and 113,166 SSIs. There was a significant decrease in overall SSI rates over surveillance time, resulting in a 35% reduction at the ninth (final) included year of surveillance (RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.63-0.67). There were large variations across procedure-specific trends, but strong consistent decreases were observed for colorectal surgery, herniorrhaphy, caesarean section, hip prosthesis, and knee prosthesis.
Pijnacker, R; van Pelt, W; Vennema, H; Kortbeek, L M; Notermans, D W; Franz, E; Mughini-Gras, L (2018-12-13)
This study aimed to (i) determine risk factors for enteropathogen co-infections, (ii) determine whether enteropathogen co-infections influence gastroenteritis risk, and (iii) determine whether enteropathogen co-infection occurred randomly in preschool children. A monthly-repeated cross-sectional survey in Dutch children aged 0-48 months was conducted during October 2012 to October 2014. A total of 981 stool samples were collected along with questionnaires collecting data on gastrointestinal symptoms and potential risk factors; 822 samples were successfully tested for 19 enteropathogens using real-time multiplex PCRs. Logistic regression analysis assessed co-infections in relation to gastroenteritis and potential risk factors. In all, 598/822 (72.7%) stool samples tested positive for at least one enteropathogen, of which 290 (48.5%) were positive for two or more enteropathogens. Risk factors for two or more enteropathogen co-infections were young age (<12 months, OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3; 13-36 months, OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5, versus 37-48 months), day-care attendance (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5), households with three or more children versus those with one child (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.8). Stool samples collected in spring less often had two or more enteropathogens versus summer (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). Food allergy was a risk factor for three or more enteropathogen co-infections (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-8.9). The frequency of co-infection was higher than expected for norovirus GI/norovirus GII, Clostridium difficile/norovirus GI, C. difficile/rotavirus, astrovirus/Dientamoeba fragilis, atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli/adenovirus, typical enteropathogenic E. coli/adenovirus, and enteroaggregative E. coli/astrovirus. No co-infection was associated with increased gastroenteritis risk. Risk factors for enteropathogen co-infections were identified and specific enteropathogens co-occurred significantly more often than expected by chance. Enteropathogen co-infections were not associated with increased gastroenteritis risk, calling into question their clinical relevance in preschool children.
Statistically significant increases of evening cortisol levels were shown in women with a 10-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise exposure in terms of LAeq, 16h (exp(β) = 1.08; CI95% = 1.00-1.16), Lden (exp(β) = 1.09; CI95% = 1.01-1.18), Lnight (exp(β) = 1.11; CI95% = 1.02-1.20). A statistically significant association was also found in women between a 10-dB(A) increase in terms of Lnight and the absolute variation per hour (exp(β) = 0.90; CI95% = 0.80-1.00). Statistically significant decreases in relative variation per hour were also evidenced in women, with stronger effects with the Lnight (exp(β) = 0.89; CI95% = 0.83-0.96) than with other noise indicators. The morning cortisol levels were unchanged whatever noise exposure indicator considered. There was no statistically significant association between aircraft noise exposure and cortisol outcomes in men.
Witlox, Willem J A; van Osch, Frits H M; Brinkman, Maree; Jochems, Sylvia; Goossens, Maria E; Weiderpass, Elisabete; White, Emily; van den Brandt, Piet A; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; et al. (2019-02-08)
The role of diet in bladder carcinogenesis has yet to be established. To date most studies have investigated dietary components individually, rather than as dietary patterns, which may provide stronger evidence for any influence of diet on bladder carcinogenesis. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with many health benefits, but few studies have investigated its association with bladder cancer risk. We investigated the potential association between the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and risk of developing bladder cancer by pooling 13 prospective cohort studies included in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants (BLEND) study and applying a Cox regression analysis. Dietary data from 646,222 study participants, including 3639 incident bladder cancer cases, were analysed. We observed an inverse association between Mediterranean diet and bladder cancer risk (HR We found evidence that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced risk of developing bladder cancer, suggesting a positive effect of the diet as a whole and not just one component.
Export search results
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different
formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format.
By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items.
To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export.
The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export.
After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format.