Scheffers, Floor R; Boer, Jolanda M A; Verschuren, W M Monique; Verheus, Martijn; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Sluijs, Ivonne; Smit, Henriëtte A; Wijga, Alet H (2019-02-01)
Dietary guidelines for pure fruit juice consumption differ between countries, regarding the question whether pure fruit juice is an acceptable alternative for fruit. Currently, little is known about pure fruit juice consumption and the risk of CVD. In this prospective cohort study, we studied the association of pure fruit juice and fruit consumption with the incidence of fatal and non-fatal CVD, CHD and stroke and investigated the differences in association with pure fruit juice consumption between low and high fruit consumers. A validated FFQ was used to estimate dietary intake of 34 560 participants (26·0 % men and 74·0 % women) aged 20-69 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands study. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression after average follow-up of 14·6 years. Compared with no consumption, pure fruit juice consumption up to 7 glasses/week - but not consumption of ≥8 glasses - was significantly associated with reduced risk of CVD and CHD, with HR from 0·83 (95 % CI 0·73, 0·95) to 0·88 (95 % CI 0·80, 0·97). Consumption of 1-4 and 4-8 glasses/week was significantly associated with lower risk of stroke with HR of 0·80 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·99) and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·61, 0·94), respectively. Associations did not differ considerably between low and high fruit consumers. The highest three quintiles of fruit consumption (≥121 g/d) were significantly associated with lower incidence of CVD, with HR of 0·87 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·97) and 0·88 (95 % CI 0·80, 0·98). In conclusion, although we observed favourable associations of moderate pure fruit juice consumption with CVD, for now consumption of whole fruit should be preferred because the evidence of the health benefits of fruit is more conclusive.
Xuan, Yang; Bobak, Martin; Anusruti, Ankita; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Pająk, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Holleczek, Bernd; Gao, Xin; Brenner, Hermann; et al. (2018-11-07)
Oxidative stress contributes to endothelial dysfunction and is involved in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. However, associations of biomarkers of oxidative stress with MI and stroke have not yet been addressed in large cohort studies. A nested case-control design was applied in four population-based cohort studies from Germany, Czech Republic, Poland and Lithuania. Derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) levels, as a proxy for the reactive oxygen species burden, and total thiol levels (TTL), as a proxy for the reductive capacity, were measured in baseline serum samples of 476 incident MI cases and 454 incident stroke cases as well as five controls per case individually matched by study center, age and sex. Statistical analyses were conducted with multi-variable adjusted conditional logistic regression models. d-ROMs levels were associated with both MI (odds ratio (OR), 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.40] for 100 Carr units increase) and stroke (OR, 1.17 [95% CI 1.01-1.35] for 100 Carr units increase). TTL were only associated with stroke incidence (OR, 0.79 [95% CI 0.63-0.99] for quartiles 2-4 vs. quartile 1). The observed relationships were stronger with fatal than with non-fatal endpoints; association of TTL with fatal MI was statistically significant (OR, 0.69 [95% CI 0.51-0.93] for 100 μmol/L-increase). This pooled analysis of four large population-based cohorts suggests an important contribution of an imbalanced redox system to the etiology of mainly fatal MI and stroke events.
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