Abbas, M; de Kraker, M E A; Aghayev, E; Astagneau, P; Aupee, M; Behnke, M; Bull, A; Choi, H J; DE Greeff, S C; Elgohari, S; et al. (2018-12-07)
Surveillance of surgical site infections (SSIs) is a core component of effective infection control practices, though its impact has not been quantified on a large scale. To determine the time-trend of SSI rates in surveillance networks. SSI surveillance networks provided procedure-specific data on numbers of SSIs and operations, stratified by hospitals' year of participation in the surveillance, to capture length of participation as an exposure. Pooled and procedure-specific random-effects Poisson regression was performed to obtain yearly rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and including surveillance network as random intercept. Of 36 invited networks, 17 networks from 15 high-income countries across Asia, Australia and Europe participated in the study. Aggregated data on 17 surgical procedures (cardiovascular, digestive, gynaecological-obstetrical, neurosurgical, and orthopaedic) were collected, resulting in data concerning 5,831,737 operations and 113,166 SSIs. There was a significant decrease in overall SSI rates over surveillance time, resulting in a 35% reduction at the ninth (final) included year of surveillance (RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.63-0.67). There were large variations across procedure-specific trends, but strong consistent decreases were observed for colorectal surgery, herniorrhaphy, caesarean section, hip prosthesis, and knee prosthesis.
Pijnacker, R; van Pelt, W; Vennema, H; Kortbeek, L M; Notermans, D W; Franz, E; Mughini-Gras, L (2018-12-13)
This study aimed to (i) determine risk factors for enteropathogen co-infections, (ii) determine whether enteropathogen co-infections influence gastroenteritis risk, and (iii) determine whether enteropathogen co-infection occurred randomly in preschool children. A monthly-repeated cross-sectional survey in Dutch children aged 0-48 months was conducted during October 2012 to October 2014. A total of 981 stool samples were collected along with questionnaires collecting data on gastrointestinal symptoms and potential risk factors; 822 samples were successfully tested for 19 enteropathogens using real-time multiplex PCRs. Logistic regression analysis assessed co-infections in relation to gastroenteritis and potential risk factors. In all, 598/822 (72.7%) stool samples tested positive for at least one enteropathogen, of which 290 (48.5%) were positive for two or more enteropathogens. Risk factors for two or more enteropathogen co-infections were young age (<12 months, OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3; 13-36 months, OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5, versus 37-48 months), day-care attendance (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5), households with three or more children versus those with one child (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.8). Stool samples collected in spring less often had two or more enteropathogens versus summer (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). Food allergy was a risk factor for three or more enteropathogen co-infections (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-8.9). The frequency of co-infection was higher than expected for norovirus GI/norovirus GII, Clostridium difficile/norovirus GI, C. difficile/rotavirus, astrovirus/Dientamoeba fragilis, atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli/adenovirus, typical enteropathogenic E. coli/adenovirus, and enteroaggregative E. coli/astrovirus. No co-infection was associated with increased gastroenteritis risk. Risk factors for enteropathogen co-infections were identified and specific enteropathogens co-occurred significantly more often than expected by chance. Enteropathogen co-infections were not associated with increased gastroenteritis risk, calling into question their clinical relevance in preschool children.
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