Isoniazid (INH) is an essential drug for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Resistance to INH may increase the likelihood of negative treatment outcome. We aimed to determine the impact of INH mono-resistance on TB treatment outcome in the European Union/European Economic Area and to identify risk factors for unsuccessful outcome in cases with INH mono-resistant TB. In this observational study, we retrospectively analysed TB cases that were diagnosed in 2002-14 and included in the European Surveillance System (TESSy). Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to identify risk factors and correct for clustering of cases within countries. A total of 187,370 susceptible and 7,578 INH mono-resistant TB cases from 24 countries were included in the outcome analysis. Treatment was successful in 74.0% of INH mono-resistant and 77.4% of susceptible TB cases. In the final model, treatment success was lower among INH mono-resistant cases (Odds ratio (OR): 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6-0.9; adjusted absolute difference in treatment success: 5.3%). Among INH mono-resistant TB cases, unsuccessful treatment outcome was associated with age above median (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.2-1.5), male sex (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.4), positive smear microscopy (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.4), positive HIV status (OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 1.6-6.5) and a prior TB history (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.5-2.2).
Antimicrobial agents used to treat infections are life-saving. Overuse may result in more frequent adverse effects and emergence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. In 2016-17, we performed the second point-prevalence survey (PPS) of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals. We included 1,209 hospitals and 310,755 patients in 28 of 31 European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. The weighted prevalence of antimicrobial use in the EU/EEA was 30.5% (95% CI: 29.2-31.9%). The most common indication for prescribing antimicrobials was treatment of a community-acquired infection, followed by treatment of HAI and surgical prophylaxis. Over half (54.2%) of antimicrobials for surgical prophylaxis were prescribed for more than 1 day. The most common infections treated by antimicrobials were respiratory tract infections and the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents were penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors. There was wide variation of patients on antimicrobials, in the selection of antimicrobial agents and in antimicrobial stewardship resources and activities across the participating countries. The results of the PPS provide detailed information on antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, enable comparisons between countries and hospitals, and highlight key areas for national and European action that will support efforts towards prudent use of antimicrobials.
Krone, Manuel; Gray, Steve; Abad, Raquel; Skoczyńska, Anna; Stefanelli, Paola; van der Ende, Arie; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Mölling, Paula; João Simões, Maria; Křížová, Pavla; et al. (2019-04-01)
BackgroundThe total incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Europe has been declining in recent years; however, a rising incidence due to serogroup W (MenW), predominantly sequence type 11 (ST-11), clonal complex 11 (cc11), was reported in some European countries.AimThe aim of this study was to compile the most recent laboratory surveillance data on MenW IMD from several European countries to assess recent trends in Europe.MethodsIn this observational, retrospective study, IMD surveillance data collected from 2013-17 by national reference laboratories and surveillance units from 13 European countries were analysed using descriptive statistics.ResultsThe overall incidence of IMD has been stable during the study period. Incidence of MenW IMD per 100,000 population (2013: 0.03; 2014: 0.05; 2015: 0.08; 2016: 0.11; 2017: 0.11) and the proportion of this serogroup among all invasive cases (2013: 5% (116/2,216); 2014: 9% (161/1,761); 2015: 13% (271/2,074); 2016: 17% (388/2,222); 2017: 19% (393/2,112)) continuously increased. The most affected countries were England, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden. MenW was more frequent in older age groups (≥ 45 years), while the proportion in children (< 15 years) was lower than in other age groups. Of the culture-confirmed MenW IMD cases, 80% (615/767) were caused by hypervirulent cc11.ConclusionDuring the years 2013-17, an increase in MenW IMD, mainly caused by MenW cc11, was observed in the majority of European countries. Given the unpredictable nature of meningococcal spread and the epidemiological potential of cc11, European countries may consider preventive strategies adapted to their contexts.
Rijks, Jolianne M; Montizaan, Margriet G E; Bakker, Nine; de Vries, Ankje; Van Gucht, Steven; Swaan, Corien; van den Broek, Jan; Gröne, Andrea; Sprong, Hein (2019-02-01)
To increase knowledge of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) circulation in the Netherlands, we conducted serosurveillance in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during 2017 and compared results with those obtained during 2010. Results corroborate a more widespread occurrence of the virus in 2017. Additional precautionary public health measures have been taken.
Qendri, V; Schurink-Van 't Klooster, T M; Bogaards, J A; Berkhof, J (2018-12-01)
Girls-only vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18 was implemented in the Netherlands in 2009. Despite the evidence of the efficacy against precancerous lesions, cross-protection induced by the vaccine and a greater potential for cancer prevention than cervical cancer only, vaccine coverage in the girls-only program has remained below target levels. Areas covered: In this paper, we review the literature from the Netherlands on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination since vaccine introduction, give an account of the coverage, safety and effectiveness of HPV vaccination as has been reported in the Dutch surveillance program and discuss challenges of the current HPV vaccination program. Expert commentary: Girls-only HPV vaccination may confer a substantial health gain in HPV-related disease prevention. However, vaccine coverage declined remarkably recently possibly related to safety concerns, limiting the benefits from girls' vaccination and increasing the potential additional benefit of sex-neutral HPV vaccination. Considering the emergence of novel vaccination and screening options and the change from cytology- to HPV-based screening in 2017, further research is required to inform decisions on the optimization of an integrated vaccination and screening program.
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