Coleman, Kelly P; Grailer, Thomas P; McNamara, Lori R; Rollins, Beau L; Christiano, Nicholas J; Kandárová, Helena; De Jong, Wim H (2018-02-02)
A round robin study using reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissues was conducted to test medical device polymer extracts for skin irritation potential. Test samples were four irritant and three non-irritant medical device polymers. Five of these polymer samples were developed and two were obtained commercially. The three non-irritant samples were comprised of 100% 80A polyurethane, one-part silicone, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The polyurethane samples were made using a hot-melt process, while the silicone samples were created by mixing and casting. The PVC samples were commercially produced sheets. The four irritant samples were comprised of one-part silicone and 25% heptanoic acid (HA), two-part silicone and 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), PVC and 4% Genapol® X-100, and PVC and 5.8% Genapol® X-080. The HA, SDS, and Genapol® X-100 samples were produced using the mixing and casting method, while the Genapol® X-080 sheet samples were obtained commercially. During development, irritant polymer samples were extracted using polar and non-polar solvents that were subsequently analyzed chemically. Samples with sufficient levels of extracted irritants were tested on RhE tissues to confirm their irritation potential. Polymers that passed this screening test were used in the round robin study described elsewhere in this special edition.
de With, G; Smetsers, R C G M; Slaper, H; de Jong, P (2018-01-04)
In the Netherlands considerable attention has been given to the exposure from thoron progeny in dwellings. For this purpose a nationwide survey on the thoron exhalation and thoron progeny concentration has been completed in 2015. Furthermore, extensive laboratory studies have been performed to measure activity concentrations and thoron exhalation rates from regular Dutch building materials. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if the findings from both field experiments and laboratory results are consistent. For this reason measured properties of building materials and surface barriers, in-situ measurements on air ventilation and thoron(progeny) in dwellings as well as advanced computational modelling on indoor air and aerosol behaviour have been used. The results demonstrate that median and mean thoron progeny concentrations of 0.53 and 0.64 Bq·m-3 found in the survey are comparable with the mean concentration of 0.57 Bq·m-3 obtained from laboratory testing and calculation. Furthermore, upper thoron progeny concentrations from the survey and the calculations are with respectively 13 and 14 Bq·m-3 also in good agreement. Such elevated concentrations lead to an effective doses of around 4 mSv per year. The study also includes worst-case scenarios on the application of surface materials high on 232Th, and the expected reduction in thoron progeny when using mainstream mitigation measures.
Fritsche, Ellen; Grandjean, Philippe; Crofton, Kevin M; Aschner, Michael; Goldberg, Alan; Heinonen, Tuula; Hessel, Ellen V S; Hogberg, Helena; Bennekou, Susanne Hougaard; Lein, Pamela J; et al. (2018-02-12)
This consensus statement voices the agreement of scientific stakeholders from regulatory agencies, academia and industry that a new framework needs adopting for assessment of chemicals with the potential to disrupt brain development. An increased prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children has been observed that cannot solely be explained by genetics and recently pre- and postnatal exposure to environmental chemicals has been suspected as a causal factor. There is only very limited information on neurodevelopmental toxicity, leaving thousands of chemicals, that are present in the environment, with high uncertainty concerning their developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential. Closing this data gap with the current test guideline approach is not feasible, because the in vivo bioassays are far too resource-intensive concerning time, money and number of animals. A variety of in vitro methods are now available, that have the potential to close this data gap by permitting mode-of-action-based DNT testing employing human stem cells-derived neuronal/glial models. In vitro DNT data together with in silico approaches will in the future allow development of predictive models for DNT effects. The ultimate application goals of these new approach methods for DNT testing are their usage for different regulatory purposes.
Bos, Jan H; Klip, Fokko C; Sprong, Hein; Broens, Els M; Kik, Marja J L (2017-08)
From a herd of captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) consisting of two males and seven females with five calves, three calves were diagnosed on post mortem examination with a Babesia capreoli infection. The diagnosis was indicated by PCR and when the other reindeer were examined two adult females and a one-year-old male were Babesia-positive. Molecular characterization of the 18S rDNA of the parasite showed complete identity with known B. capreoli sequences. Ixodes ricinus has been demonstrated to be a competent vector for B. capreoli from infected roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), the natural host of B. capreoli. The B. capreoli infection in these reindeer may have been transmitted by infected ticks (Ixodes ricinus) originating from roe deer living in the forest and meadows surrounding the enclosure.
Vlaanderen, J J; Janssen, N A; Hoek, G; Keski-Rahkonen, P; Barupal, D K; Cassee, F R; Gosens, I; Strak, M; Steenhof, M; Lan, Q; et al. (2017-07)
Biological perturbations caused by air pollution might be reflected in the compounds present in blood originating from air pollutants and endogenous metabolites influenced by air pollution (defined here as part of the blood metabolome). We aimed to assess the perturbation of the blood metabolome in response to short term exposure to air pollution.
Guichelaar, Teun; van Erp, Elisabeth A; Hoeboer, Jeroen; Smits, Noortje A M; van Els, Cécile A C M; Pieren, Daan K J; Luytjes, Willem (2018-01-02)
Susceptibility and declined resistance to human pathogens like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) at old age is well represented in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Despite providing a preferred model of human infectious diseases, little is known about aging of its adaptive immune system. We aimed to define aging-related changes of the immune system of this species. Concomitantly, we asked whether the rate of immunological alterations may be stratified by physiological aberrations encountered during aging. With increasing age, cotton rats showed reduced frequencies of T cells, impaired induction of antibodies to RSV, higher incidence of aberrations of organs and signs of lipemia. Moreover, old animals expressed high biological heterogeneity, but the age-related reduction of T cell frequency was only observed in those specimens that displayed aberrant organs. Thus, cotton rats show age-related alterations of lymphocytes that can be classified by links with health status.
We need greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying protection against influenza virus to develop more effective vaccines. To do this, we need better, more reproducible methods of sampling the nasal mucosa. The aim of the current study was to compare levels of influenza virus A subtype-specific IgA collected using three different methods of nasal sampling. Samples were collected from healthy adult volunteers before and after LAIV immunization by nasal wash, flocked swabs and Synthetic Absorptive Matrix (SAM) strips. Influenza A virus subtype-specific IgA levels were measured by haemagglutinin binding ELISA or haemagglutinin binding microarray and the functional response was assessed by microneutralization. Nasosorption using SAM strips lead to the recovery of a more concentrated sample of material, with a significantly higher level of total and influenza H1-specific IgA. However, an equivalent percentage of specific IgA was observed with all sampling methods when normalized to the total IgA. Responses measured using a recently developed antibody microarray platform, which allows evaluation of binding to multiple influenza strains simultaneously with small sample volumes, were compared to ELISA. There was a good correlation between ELISA and microarray values. Material recovered from SAM strips was weakly neutralizing when used in an in vitro assay, with a modest correlation between the level of IgA measured by ELISA and neutralization, but a greater correlation between microarray-measured IgA and neutralizing activity. In conclusion we have tested three different methods of nasal sampling and show that flocked swabs and novel SAM strips are appropriate alternatives to traditional nasal washes for assessment of mucosal influenza humoral immunity.
Blom, Maartje; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Sijne-van Veen, Marja; Boelen, Anita; Bredius, Robbert G M; van der Burg, Mirjam; Schielen, Peter C J I (2017-07)
Newborn screening of severe combined immunodeficiency through the detection of T-cell receptor excision circles will provide the opportunity of treating before the occurrence of life-threatening infections. With the EnLite Neonatal TREC assay (PerkinElmer) and end-point PCR, 39 samples (3.0%) of 1295 heel prick cards of the Dutch newborn screening program required a retest after initial analysis. After retest, 21 samples (1.62%) gave TREC levels below cut-off. A significant reduction in TREC levels was observed in heel prick cards stored for three months (n=33) and one year (n=33). Preterm newborns (n=155) showed significantly lower TREC levels and a higher retest-rate than full-term newborns. Peripheral blood spots of 22 confirmed SCID patients and 17 primary immunodeficiency patients showed undetectable or low TREC-levels. These findings suggest that the EnLite Neonatal TREC assay is a suitable method for SCID-screening in the Netherlands, thereby providing guidance in the decisions concerning implementation into the Dutch program.
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