It is uncertain to what extent established cardiovascular risk factors are associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). To estimate the associations of major cardiovascular risk factors with VTE, ie, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. This study included individual participant data mostly from essentially population-based cohort studies from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (ERFC; 731 728 participants; 75 cohorts; years of baseline surveys, February 1960 to June 2008; latest date of follow-up, December 2015) and the UK Biobank (421 537 participants; years of baseline surveys, March 2006 to September 2010; latest date of follow-up, February 2016). Participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline were included. Data were analyzed from June 2017 to September 2018. A panel of several established cardiovascular risk factors.
Hengeveld, Linda M; Pelgröm, Anouk D A; Visser, Marjolein; Boer, Jolanda M A; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H (2019-02-01)
Adequate protein intake is required to maintain muscle health in old age, but a low protein intake is very common in older adults. There is little insight in the general and dietary profile of older adults with a low protein intake. Therefore, this study aimed to compare community-dwelling older adults with a low and a high protein intake with regard to protein intake per eating occasion, food sources of protein and general participant characteristics. Data were used from 727 Dutch community-dwelling older adults aged ≥70 years. Protein intake at meal and snack moments was measured with two non-consecutive dietary record assisted 24-h recalls. Low protein intake was defined as below the Recommended Dietary Allowance of 0.8 g protein per kg adjusted body weight per day (g/kg aBW/d). Differences in protein and food intakes between those with a low and a high protein intake were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. Eating occasions were compared with regard to differences between the low and high protein intake group by using MANOVA. Characteristics of older adults with low protein intake were selected by using a multiple logistic backward elimination procedure. Low protein intake was present in 15% of the participants. At all eating occasions, median protein intake was lower in the low compared to the high protein intake group (breakfast, 7.8 vs. 10.8 g; lunch, 12.6 vs. 24.3 g; dinner, 21.8 vs. 31.1 g; snack moments, 6.7 vs. 9.7 g; P < 0.001), and was also consistently lower relative to energy intake. The contribution of animal protein to total protein intake was lower among the low protein intake group. Both groups obtained most protein from dairy, meat and cereals, but meat contributed less (21.5 vs. 28.2%) and cereals more (21.9 vs. 19.6%) among the low than the high protein intake group (all P < 0.01). Differences in protein intake, percentage of energy from protein and contribution of animal to total protein intake between the groups were largest at lunch compared to the other eating occasions. Out of a long list of variables, low protein intake was only associated with following a diet, being obese vs. normal-weight and drinking alcohol on none vs. some but <5 days/week (P < 0.05). At all eating occasions, Dutch community-dwelling older adults with a protein intake <0.8 g/kg aBW/d ate less protein (also relative to their energy intake) and a lower proportion of animal protein compared to those with a high protein intake. These differences were largest at lunch. Major food sources of protein - in both groups - were dairy, meat and cereals. We could only identify following a diet, being obese and not drinking alcohol as general characteristics of older adults with a low protein intake.
van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M (2019-01-05)
Mucosal antibodies against capsular polysaccharides offer protection against acquisition and carriage of encapsulated bacteria like Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. Measurements of salivary antibodies as replacement for blood testing has important (cost-effective) advantages, particular in studies that assess the impact of large-scale vaccination or in populations in which blood sampling is difficult. This study aimed to estimate a threshold for meningococcal IgG salivary antibody levels to discriminate between unprotected and protected vaccinated individuals. MenA-, MenC-, MenW- and MenY-polysaccharide (PS) specific IgG levels in serum and saliva from participants in a meningococcal vaccination study were measured using the fluorescent-bead-based multiplex immunoassay. Functional antibody titers in serum against the four serogroups were measured with serum bactericidal assay using rabbit complement (rSBA). A threshold for salivary IgG was determined by analysis of ROC curves using a serum rSBA titer ≥128 as correlate of protection. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to quantify the accuracy of the salivary test and was considered adequate when ≥0.80. The optimal cut-off was considered adequate when salivary IgG cut-off levels provided specificity of ≥90%. True positive rate (sensitivity), positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated to explore the possible use of salivary antibody levels as a surrogate of protection. The best ROC curve (AUC of 0.95) was obtained for MenC, with an estimated minimum threshold of MenC-PS specific salivary IgG ≥3.54 ng/mL as surrogate of protection. An adequate AUC (> 0.80) was also observed for MenW and MenY with an estimated minimal threshold of 2.00 and 1.82 ng/mL, respectively. When applying these thresholds, all (100%) samples collected 1 month and 1 year after the (booster) meningococcal vaccination, that were defined as protective in the saliva test for MenC, MenW and MenY, corresponded with concomitant serum rSBA titer ≥128 for the respective meningococcal serogroups. The saliva test offers an alternative screening tool to monitor protective vaccine responses up to one year after meningococcal vaccination against MenC, MenW and MenY. Future (large) longitudinal vaccination studies evaluating also clinical protection against IMD or carriage acquisition are required to validate the currently proposed threshold in saliva.
Boer, Maria Dullaert-de; de Boer, Richard F; Lameijer, Annel; Sterne, Elles; Skidmore, Ben; Suijkerbuijk, Anita W M; Heck, Max; van der Zanden, Adri G M (2019-02-01)
Selenite enrichment broth (SEB) is used to optimize the recovery of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica from stool samples. Compared to a direct culture approach, it enhances culture yield by reducing growth of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. Over the course of seven years from 2000 to 2017, 47,235 faecal samples were tested with a Salmonella PCR. We investigated the added value of using SEB in combination with faeces for DNA extraction, in order to improve the sensitivity of molecular diagnostics for detection of Salmonella. A Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica strain was tested for growth characteristics, with and without incubation in SEB, to determine the impact of Selenite enrichment in the Salmonella PCR. Retrospectively, a total of 102 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica PCR positive faecal samples were re-analysed. DNA extraction was performed with the EasyMag® and MagNaPure96® system using three different input volumes of faeces and SEB. Prospectively, 114 Salmonella PCR positive faecal samples were retested within 2 days using five different input volumes for DNA extraction. Retrospectively, PCR that used SEB as part of input in the DNA extraction, 7/102 (7%) Salmonella PCR positive samples were additionally detected compared to no use of SEB. Of these, Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovariation Thompson, Enteritidis, 9,12:l.v and Senftenberg have been outbreak related in the past. Prospectively results were combined in collaboration with another microbiology laboratory, 15/114 (13.2%) additional specimens were detected with the Salmonella PCR, including processing Selenite enrichment broth. In conclusion, of the total 47,235 feacal samples, with SEB the prevalence of a positive PCR for Salmonella is 2.2%. Of these 2.2% positive Salmonella PCRs, 0.4% was not detected in culture. By using SEB an improved detection of Salmonella diagnostics could be realized and a substantial part of 13,2% additional Salmonella cases could be detected.
In previous work, extreme survival of various bacterial species during cooking was reported when attached to chicken meat. In this paper the effects of an extremely high challenge temperature on survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni, attached to chicken breast fillets or pork to test for matrix effects are reported. Survival was predicted, using standard D- and z-values from the literature, and compared to experimentally obtained data. Attached to meat, both S. Typhimurium and C. jejuni survived longer than predicted, longer when attached to chicken meat than when attached to pork. Additionally, the effect of non-isothermal heating on survival of almonella in buffer is described. In buffer, when slowly heated, Salmonella died off as predicted. When Salmonella was heated in buffer according to a heating profile mimicking that of the surface of meat in boiling water, it appeared that cells died off much slower than predicted. It is shown that the thermal characteristics of Salmonella surviving the first 35 s of fast heating had changed. After these 35 s, remaining Salmonella survived for minutes, even at a challenge temperature of 90 °C. During heating, cell size decline was observed. A loss of intracellular water during cooking might have resulted in smaller, dehydrated cells, in cells with altered thermal resistance characteristics. This could explain why the use of standard D-and z-values did not allow the correct prediction of survival of Salmonella during fast heating in buffer, or during cooking, being attached to the surface of meat. Many factors affect the level of heat resistance of bacteria. The results of this and a former study show that attachment to meat contributes to an increased level of heat resistance of bacteria. A fast heating process further contributes to the increased level of heat resistance possibly as the result of changed thermal characteristics due to a loss of water.
Dekker, Margriet; Laverman, Gozewijn Dirk; De Vries, Ankje; Reimerink, Johan; Geeraedts, Felix (2019-01-01)
Recently, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was detected in the Netherlands for the first time, in ticks collected in 2015 in the National Park Sallandse heuvelrug in response to the detection of anti-TBEV antibodies in roe deer. Hereafter, two human cases of autochthonous TBE have been reported, occurring in 2016. One case was geographically linked to the area of the previously reported ticks, which harbored a genetically divergent TBEV-Eu strain variant (TBEV-NL). So far these are the few reported events that point to endemic transmission of TBEV in the Netherlands and the true prevalence of TBEV and TBE disease in the Netherlands and its impact on the human population remains to be determined. We describe the third human case, identified in 2017, which geographically clusters with the aforementioned case and TBEV-positive ticks. We also describe the identification of another TBEV-NL-positive tick in the Netherlands, collected 2 years after the initial find in that same region (in 2017). These observations support the concept of continued circulation of TBEV-NL and the presence of a possible TBEV hot spot in the Sallandse Heuvelrug region.
Rijks, Jolianne M; Montizaan, Margriet G E; Bakker, Nine; de Vries, Ankje; Van Gucht, Steven; Swaan, Corien; van den Broek, Jan; Gröne, Andrea; Sprong, Hein (2019-02-01)
To increase knowledge of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) circulation in the Netherlands, we conducted serosurveillance in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during 2017 and compared results with those obtained during 2010. Results corroborate a more widespread occurrence of the virus in 2017. Additional precautionary public health measures have been taken.
Few published breast cancer (BC) risk prediction models consider the heterogeneity of predictor variables between estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) and negative (ER-) tumors. Using data from two large cohorts, we examined whether modeling this heterogeneity could improve prediction. We built two models, for ER+ (Model Parity, number of full-term pregnancies, age at first full-term pregnancy and body height were only associated with ER+ tumors. Menopausal status, age at menarche and at menopause, hormone replacement therapy, postmenopausal body mass index, and alcohol intake were homogeneously associated with ER+ and ER- tumors. Internal validation yielded a C-statistic of 0.64 for Model Modeling heterogeneous epidemiological risk factors might yield little improvement in BC risk prediction. Nevertheless, a model specifically predictive of ER+ tumor risk could be more applicable than an omnibus model in risk assessment for chemoprevention.
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