Posthuma, Leo; van Gils, Jos; Zijp, Michiel C; van de Meent, Dik; de Zwart, Dick (2019-01-24)
The present paper considers the collection and use of ecotoxicity data for risk assessment with Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) of chemical pollution in surface water. SSDs are used to quantify the likelihood that critical effect levels are exceeded. This fits to the European Water Framework Directive, which suggest using models to assess the likelihood that chemicals affect water quality for management prioritization. We derived SSDs based on chronic and acute ecotoxicity test data for 12,386 compounds. The log-normal SSDs are characterized by the median and the standard deviation of log-transformed ecotoxicity data and by a quality score. A case study illustrates the utility of SSDs for water quality assessment and management prioritization. We quantified the chronic and acute mixture toxic pressure of mixture exposures for >22,000 water bodies in Europe for 1,760 chemicals for which we had both exposure and hazard data. Results show the likelihood of mixture exposures exceeding a negligible effect level and increasing species loss, respectively. The SSDs presented in this paper represent a versatile and comprehensive approach to prevent, assess and manage chemical pollution problems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Loef, Bette; van Baarle, Debbie; van der Beek, Allard J; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; Proper, Karin I (2018-11-26)
Recently, there has been interest in whether shift work may enhance infection susceptibility. Our aim was to determine whether shift workers in healthcare have a higher incidence, duration, and severity of influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute respiratory illness (ARI) than non-shift workers. From September 2016-June 2017, 501 rotating and/or night shift workers and 88 non-shift workers from the Klokwerk+ study (2016-2017) daily registered occurrence of ILI/ARI symptoms using a smartphone application. Incidence rate of ILI/ARI episodes (defined as ≥2 symptoms on the same day/≥1 symptom during two consecutive days), mean duration per episode, and incidence rate of severe episodes were compared between shift and non-shift workers using negative binomial regression and linear mixed model analysis. In total, participants completed 110,347 diaries. Shift workers' incidence rate of ILI/ARI episodes was 1.20 (95%-CI:1.01, 1.43) times higher, and for severe ILI/ARI episodes 1.22 (95%-CI:1.01, 1.49) times higher, compared to non-shift workers. Mean duration per ILI/ARI episode did not differ (ratio between means=1.02 (95%-CI:0.87, 1.19)). In conclusion, shift workers in healthcare had more and more severe ILI/ARI episodes than non-shift workers, but with a similar duration. Insight into underlying mechanisms connecting shift work and infection susceptibility will contribute to the design of preventive initiatives.
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different
formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format.
By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items.
To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export.
The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export.
After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format.