Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Foppen, Ewout; Jonker, Martijs; Wackers, Paul; van Faassen, Martijn; van Weeghel, Michel; van Kerkhof, Linda; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries (2019-01-01)
Exposure to light at night (LAN) has been associated with serious pathologies, including obesity, diabetes and cancer. Recently we showed that 2 h of LAN impaired glucose tolerance in rats. Several studies have suggested that the autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in communicating these acute effects of LAN to the periphery. Here, we investigated the acute effects of LAN on the liver transcriptome of male Wistar rats. Expression levels of individual genes were not markedly affected by LAN, nevertheless pathway analysis revealed clustered changes in a number of endocrine pathways. Subsequently, we used selective hepatic denervations [sympathetic (Sx), parasympathetic (Px), total (Tx, i.e., Sx plus Px), sham] to investigate the involvement of the ANS in the effects observed. Surgical removal of the sympathetic or parasympathetic hepatic branches of the ANS resulted in many, but small changes in the liver transcriptome, including a pathway involved with circadian clock regulation, but it clearly separated the four denervation groups. On the other hand, analysis of the liver metabolome was not able to separate the denervation groups, and only 6 out of 78 metabolites were significantly up- or downregulated after denervations. Finally, removal of the sympathetic and parasympathetic hepatic nerves combined with LAN exposure clearly modulated the effects of LAN on the liver transcriptome, but left most endocrine pathways unaffected. Conclusion: One-hour light-at-night acutely affects the liver transcriptome. Part of this effect is mediated via the nervous innervation, as a hepatectomy modulated and reduced the effect of LAN on liver transcripts.
van Dongen, Johanna M; Persoon, Saskia; Jongeneel, Gabrielle; Bosmans, Judith E; Kersten, Marie José; Brug, Johannes; Nollet, Frans; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Buffart, Laurien M (2019-08-01)
One hundred nine patients were randomly assigned to the exercise intervention (n = 54) or the usual care control group (n = 55). Data on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak), handgrip strength, general fatigue, and health-related quality of life (quality-adjusted life years [QALYs]) were collected at baseline (T0), after completion of the exercise intervention or at a similar time point in the control group (T1) and 12 months later (T2). Cost questionnaires were used to assess societal costs. Long-term effectiveness (at T2) was evaluated using linear mixed model analyses. For the economic evaluation, missing data were imputed using multiple imputation, and data were analyzed using linear mixed models.
Determann, Domino; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; de Wit, G Ardine; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Bjørnskov Pedersen, Line (2019-08-01)
Background. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used in the health care context to inform on patient preferences for health care services. In order for such experiments to provide useful and policy-relevant information, it is vital that the design includes those options that the respondent faces in the real-life situation. Whether to include opt-out, neither, or status quo alternatives has, however, received little attention in the DCE literature. We aim to investigate whether the use of different unforced choice formats affects DCE results in different settings: 1) opt-out versus neither in a health care market where there is no status quo and 2) including status quo in addition to opt-out in a health care market with a status quo. Design. A DCE on Dutch citizens' preferences for personal health records served as our case, and 3189 respondents were allocated to the different unforced choice formats. We used mixed logit error component models to estimate preferences. Results. We found that the use of different unforced choice formats affects marginal utilities and welfare estimates and hence the conclusions that will be drawn from the DCE to inform health care decision making. Conclusions. To avoid biased estimates, we recommend that researchers are hesitant to use the neither option and consider including a status quo in addition to opt-out in settings where a status quo exists.
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