Bos, Jan H; Klip, Fokko C; Sprong, Hein; Broens, Els M; Kik, Marja J L (2017-08)
From a herd of captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) consisting of two males and seven females with five calves, three calves were diagnosed on post mortem examination with a Babesia capreoli infection. The diagnosis was indicated by PCR and when the other reindeer were examined two adult females and a one-year-old male were Babesia-positive. Molecular characterization of the 18S rDNA of the parasite showed complete identity with known B. capreoli sequences. Ixodes ricinus has been demonstrated to be a competent vector for B. capreoli from infected roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), the natural host of B. capreoli. The B. capreoli infection in these reindeer may have been transmitted by infected ticks (Ixodes ricinus) originating from roe deer living in the forest and meadows surrounding the enclosure.
Vlaanderen, J J; Janssen, N A; Hoek, G; Keski-Rahkonen, P; Barupal, D K; Cassee, F R; Gosens, I; Strak, M; Steenhof, M; Lan, Q; et al. (2017-07)
Biological perturbations caused by air pollution might be reflected in the compounds present in blood originating from air pollutants and endogenous metabolites influenced by air pollution (defined here as part of the blood metabolome). We aimed to assess the perturbation of the blood metabolome in response to short term exposure to air pollution.
Giessen, J W B van der; Vries, A de; Roos, M; Wielinga, Peter; Kortbeek, L M; Mank, T G (2006-06-01)
Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is a protozoan organism that can infect the intestinal tract of many animal species including mammals. Genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis is well described but the zoonotic potential is still not clear. In this study, we analysed 100 Giardia DNA samples directly isolated from human stool specimens, to get more insight in the different G. duodenalis assemblages present in the Dutch human population. Results showed that these human isolates could be divided into two main Assemblages A and B within the G. duodenalis group on the basis of PCR assays specific for the Assemblages A and B and the DNA sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA and the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Genotyping results showed that G. duodenalis isolates originating from Dutch human patients belonged in 35% of the cases to Assemblage A (34/98) and in 65% of the cases to Assemblage B (64/98) whereas two human cases remained negative in all assays tested. In addition, we compared these human samples with animal samples from the Netherlands and human and animal samples from other countries. A phylogenetic analysis was carried out on the DNA sequences obtained from these Giardia and those available in GenBank. Using gdh DNA sequence analysis, human and animal Assemblage A and B Giardia isolates could be identified. However, phylogenetic analysis revealed different sub-clustering for human and animal isolates where host-species-specific assemblages (C, D, E, F and G) could be identified. The geographic origin of the human and animal samples was not a discriminating factor.
Fingermann, M; Fernández, J; Sisti, F; Rodríguez, M E; Gatti, B; Bottero, D; Graieb, A; Gaillard, M E; Ayala, S González; Mooi, F R; et al. (2006-04-24)
In Argentina, as in other countries, the number of pertussis cases has been increasing, even in highly vaccinated zones. Many reports suggest that the decline of vaccine efficacy due to antigenic shifts in the circulating Bordetella pertussis might be among the factors that contribute to pertussis re-emergence in different parts of the world. To evaluate the incidence of this factor in Argentina, we decided to characterize the circulating bacteria of an important demographic area of this country in comparison with the strain used for vaccine production. From 1997 to 2003 we collected nasopharyngeal samples from pediatric patients with signs of Bordetella infection hospitalized in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires and La Plata, Argentina. From these samples we identified 28 B. pertussis, which were characterized by biochemical techniques, PCR, DNA fingerprint, prn and ptx genes sequencing, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) pattern. BOX-PCR from B. pertussis isolates yielded one cluster containing 13 isolates and some smaller ones, being all fingerprints different from the vaccine strain. Differences between Argentinean circulating bacteria and the vaccine strain were also observed for the Prn and Ptx variants as well as for the LPS pattern. Moreover, this last pattern seemed to change over the years. In addition, we identified two B. bronchiseptica. The presence of this Bordetella species together with the observed differences between circulating B. pertussis and the strain used in vaccine production should be considered for the development of an improved vaccine.
Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Tilburg, Jeroen J H C; Loeke, Nathalie A J M te; Vennema, Harry; Jonker, Klaas; Boer, Enne de; Koopmans, Marion (2006-05-01)
Shellfish from oyster farms in the Netherlands and imported from other European countries were examined for viral contamination. A method that allows sequence matching between noroviruses from human cases and shellfish was used. The samples of shellfish (n = 42) were analyzed using a semi-nested RT-PCR that had been optimized for detection of norovirus in shellfish (SR primer sets). In addition, a different genome region was targeted using a second primer set which is routinely used for diagnosis of norovirus infection in humans (JV12Y/JV13I). To improve the detection limit for this RT-PCR a semi-nested test format was developed (NV primer sets). One of 21 oyster samples (4.8%) from Dutch farms was norovirus positive, whereas norovirus was detected in 1 out of 8 oyster samples (12.5%) and 5 out of 13 mussel samples (38.5%) collected directly after importation in the Netherlands. RNA from samples associated with an outbreak of gastro-enteritis in the Netherlands in 2001 was re-analyzed using the NV primer sets. At least one identical sequence (142/142 nt) was found in three fecal and in two oyster samples related to this outbreak. Further surveillance of norovirus by detection and typing of viruses from patients with gastroenteritis and shellfish is warranted to clarify the causes of future outbreaks.
Wijnands, L M; Dufrenne, J B; Zwietering, M H; Leusden, F M van (2006-11-01)
The species Bacillus cereus, known for its ability to cause food borne disease, consists of a large variety of strains. An important property for discrimination of strains is their growth temperature range. Psychrotrophic strains can grow well at refrigerator temperatures but grow at 37 degrees C with difficulty. Mesophilic strains on the other hand are unable to grow below 10 degrees C, but grow well at 37 degrees C. Spores of six psychrotrophic and six mesophilic strains were investigated for their ability to survive and grow in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids, mimicking the conditions in the gastro-intestinal tract. The germination potential of psychrotrophic and mesophilic spores in simulated intestinal fluid does not differ much. Under conditions simulating the gastro-intestinal passage, 5 out of 6 mesophilic strains showed growth, and only 2 out of 6 psychrotrophic strains. Temperature (37 degrees C) and simulated gastro-intestinal conditions together influenced germination and growth.
Schuit, Albertine J; Wendel-Vos, Gerrie C W; Verschuren, Wilhelmina M M; Ronckers, Emma T; Ament, Andre; Assema, Patricia van; Ree, Jan van; Ruland, Erik C (2006-03-01)
BACKGROUND: A widely advocated strategy in public health is community-based health promotion. The aim of this study was to investigate the net effect of a cardiovascular disease prevention program (Hartslag Limburg) on cardiovascular risk factors after 5 years of intervention. DESIGN: Cohort study comparing 5-year mean change in risk factors between the intervention and reference area. The statistical analyses for the study were performed in 2005. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: In 1998, 3000 subjects (aged 25 to 70) from the intervention area and 895 subjects from a reference area participated in the baseline measurement. Of these, 2414 intervention subjects and 758 reference subjects completed the follow-up measurement in 2003. INTERVENTION: Hartslag Limburg is an integrative community-based cardiovascular disease prevention program promoting a healthy lifestyle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, serum glucose (nonfasting), and serum total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. RESULTS: During the 5-year follow-up, risk factors changed unfavorably in the reference group, whereas changes were less pronounced or absent in the intervention group. The adjusted difference in mean change in risk factors between intervention and reference group was significant (p<0.05) for BMI: -0.36 kg/m(2) in men and -0.25 kg/m(2) in women; waist circumference -2.9 cm in men and -2.1 cm in women; systolic blood pressure: -7.8 mmHg in men and -5.5 mmHg in women; total cholesterol 0.11 mmol/L in women and finally serum glucose -0.23 mmol/L in women. CONCLUSIONS: Hartslag Limburg succeeded in reducing-and in some cases, preventing-age- and time-related increase in BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and, in women, nonfasting glucose concentration.
Guichelaar, Teun; van Erp, Elisabeth A; Hoeboer, Jeroen; Smits, Noortje A M; van Els, Cécile A C M; Pieren, Daan K J; Luytjes, Willem (2018-01-02)
Susceptibility and declined resistance to human pathogens like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) at old age is well represented in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Despite providing a preferred model of human infectious diseases, little is known about aging of its adaptive immune system. We aimed to define aging-related changes of the immune system of this species. Concomitantly, we asked whether the rate of immunological alterations may be stratified by physiological aberrations encountered during aging. With increasing age, cotton rats showed reduced frequencies of T cells, impaired induction of antibodies to RSV, higher incidence of aberrations of organs and signs of lipemia. Moreover, old animals expressed high biological heterogeneity, but the age-related reduction of T cell frequency was only observed in those specimens that displayed aberrant organs. Thus, cotton rats show age-related alterations of lymphocytes that can be classified by links with health status.
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