Jantratid, E; Prakongpan, S; Dressman, J B; Amidon, G L; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Barends, D M(2006-05-01)
Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing cimetidine are reviewed. According to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), cimetidine would be assigned to Class III. Cimetidine's therapeutic use and therapeutic index, its pharmacokinetic properties, data related to the possibility of excipient interactions, and reported BE/bioavailability (BA) problems were also taken into consideration. On the basis of the overall evidence, a biowaiver can be recommended for cimetidine IR products, provided that the test product contains only those excipients reported in this paper in their usual amounts, and that the test and the comparator drug products both are "rapidly dissolving" as per BCS.
Kamp, Irene van; Velden, Peter G van der; Stellato, Rebecca K; Roorda, Jan; Loon, Jeanne van; Kleber, Rolf J; Gersons, Bertold B R; Lebret, Erik(2006-06-01)
OBJECTIVES: Two to three weeks after the explosion of a fireworks storage facility in a residential area (May 2000, Enschede, The Netherlands) we assessed the self-reported physical and mental health among those affected by the disaster. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3792 residents, passers-by, and rescue workers, who were involved in and/or affected by the disaster and were > or =18 years of age. RESULTS: At least 30% of those affected by the disaster reported serious physical and mental health problems 2-3 weeks after the explosion. Compared with reference values in the general Dutch population, high scores were found for somatic symptoms, sleeping problems, and restrictions in daily functioning due to physical and mental problems, such as anxiety, depression, and feelings of insufficiency. The strength of these differences varied between groups, based on the level of involvement and the level of being affected. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that the fireworks disaster had a substantial impact on the health of those affected by the disaster. The health impact was most pronounced for residents and passers-by and also for rescue workers living in the affected area, but to a lesser degree. Physical and mental health problems were strongly associated with the shocking experiences during and shortly after the disaster.
Vogt, M; Derendorf, H; Krämer, J; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Stavchansky, S; Dressman, J B; Barends, D M(2007-01-01)
Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing prednisolone are reviewed. Data on its solubility, oral absorption, and permeability are not totally conclusive, but strongly suggest a BCS Class 1 classification. Prednisolone's therapeutic indications and therapeutic index, pharmacokinetics, and the possibility of excipient interactions were also taken into consideration. Available evidence indicates that a biowaiver for IR solid oral dosage forms formulated with the excipients tabulated in this article would be unlikely to expose patients to undue risks.
Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wallinga, Jacco; Teunis, Peter F M; Xing, Shuqin; Mikolajczyk, Rafael(2006-08-22)
BACKGROUND: Large quantities of smallpox vaccine have been stockpiled to protect entire nations against a possible reintroduction of smallpox. Planning for an appropriate use of these stockpiled vaccines in response to a smallpox outbreak requires a rational assessment of the risks of vaccination-related adverse events, compared to the risk of contracting an infection. Although considerable effort has been made to understand the dynamics of smallpox transmission in modern societies, little attention has been paid to estimating the frequency of adverse events due to smallpox vaccination. Studies exploring the consequences of smallpox vaccination strategies have commonly used a frequency of approximately one death per million vaccinations, which is based on a study of vaccination with the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) strain of vaccinia virus. However, a multitude of historical studies of smallpox vaccination with other vaccinia strains suggest that there are strain-related differences in the frequency of adverse events after vaccination. Because many countries have stockpiled vaccine based on the Lister strain of vaccinia virus, a quantitative evaluation of the adverse effects of such vaccines is essential for emergency response planning. We conducted a systematic review and statistical analysis of historical data concerning vaccination against smallpox with different strains of vaccinia virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed historical vaccination data extracted from the literature. We extracted data on the frequency of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to vaccinia strain and age of vaccinees. Using a hierarchical Bayesian approach for meta-analysis, we estimated the expected frequencies of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to age at vaccination for smallpox vaccines based on the NYCBH and Lister vaccinia strains. We found large heterogeneity between findings from different studies and a time-period effect that showed decreasing incidences of adverse events over several decades. To estimate death rates, we then restricted our analysis to more-recent studies. We estimated that vaccination with the NYCBH strain leads to an average of 1.4 deaths per million vaccinations (95% credible interval, 0-6) and that vaccination with Lister vaccine leads to an average of 8.4 deaths per million vaccinations (95% credible interval, 0-31). We combined age-dependent estimates of the frequency of death after vaccination and revaccination with demographic data to obtain estimates of the expected number of deaths in present societies due to vaccination with the NYCBH and Lister vaccinia strains. CONCLUSIONS: Previous analyses of smallpox vaccination policies, which rely on the commonly assumed value of one death per million vaccinations, may give serious underestimates of the number of deaths resulting from vaccination. Moreover, because there are large, strain-dependent differences in the frequency of adverse events due to smallpox vaccination, it is difficult to extrapolate from predictions for the NYCBH-derived vaccines (stockpiled in countries such as the US) to predictions for the Lister-derived vaccines (stockpiled in countries such as Germany). In planning for an effective response to a possible smallpox outbreak, public-health decision makers should reconsider their strategies of when to opt for ring vaccination and when to opt for mass vaccination.
Boot, Hein J; Melker, Hester E de; Stolk, Elly A; Wit, G Ardine de; Kimman, Tjeerd G(2006-09-11)
Although varicella is seen as a benign disease in the Netherlands, about 40,000 visits to a general practitioner (GP) are made, over 200 hospital admission occur, and 2.3 persons die on average each year. Most of this burden of disease can be prevented by universal varicella childhood vaccination. Ten years after the introduction of the single-shot, single-component varicella childhood vaccination in the USA, a major reduction in hospitalization, mortality, and burden of disease has been reported. Using our recently vaccine evaluation model for the introduction of a new vaccine in our national immunization program, we have analyzed the feasibility of universal varicella vaccination by replacing the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine with a measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine. After structuring and reviewing the available data, two major points of uncertainty remain: (1) the influence of universal childhood vaccination on the incidence of zoster later in life; (2) the cost-effectiveness ratio for the Dutch situation. Despite these uncertainties it is clear that universal childhood vaccination will prevent most of the varicella related GP-visits, hospitalizations, and deaths.
Melker, Hester E de; Berbers, Guy A M; Hahné, Susan J M; Rümke, Hans; Hof, Susan van den; Wit, G Ardine de; Boot, Hein J(2006-05-01)
We studied the epidemiology of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in The Netherlands to assess the desirability to implement routine varicella zoster virus vaccination in The Netherlands. Data on seroprevalence of varicella zoster virus in the general population (1995-1996), consultations of general practitioners for varicella (2000-2002) and herpes zoster (1998-2001) and hospital admissions due to varicella (1994-2001) and herpes zoster (1994-2001) in The Netherlands were analysed. The seropositivity increased sharply with age from 18.4% for both 0- and 1-year-olds, to 48.9%, 59.0%, 75.7% and 93.0% for 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year-olds, respectively, and varied between 97.5% and 100% for older age groups. The average annual incidence of GP-consultations amounted to 253.5 and 325.0 per 100,000 for varicella and herpes zoster, respectively. The incidence of hospital admission due to varicella and herpes zoster was 1.3 (2.3 including side diagnosis) and 2.7 (5.8) per 100,000, respectively. Whilst for varicella, the incidence of GP-consultations and hospital admissions were highest in childhood, for herpes zoster, these were highest in elderly. Insight into epidemiology of varicella zoster is needed for the assessment of the desirability of introduction of routine varicella zoster vaccination.
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) stimulates cell proliferation and can enhance the development of tumours in different organs. Epidemiological studies have shown that an elevated level of circulating IGF-I is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, as well as of other cancers. Most of circulating IGF-I is bound to an acid-labile subunit and to one of six insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), among which the most important are IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-1. Polymorphisms of the IGF1 gene and of genes encoding for the major IGF-I carriers may predict circulating levels of IGF-I and have an impact on cancer risk. We tested this hypothesis with a case-control study of 807 breast cancer patients and 1588 matched control subjects, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We genotyped 23 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in IGF1, IGFBP1, IGFBP3 and IGFALS, and measured serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in samples of cases and controls. We found a weak but significant association of polymorphisms at the 5' end of the IGF1 gene with breast cancer risk, particularly among women younger than 55 years, and a strong association of polymorphisms located in the 5' end of IGFBP3 with circulating levels of IGFBP-3, which confirms previous findings. Common genetic variation in these candidate genes does not play a major role in altering breast cancer risk in Caucasians.
Werkman, Andrea; Schuit, Albertine J; Kwak, Lydia; Kremers, Stef P J; Visscher, Tommy L S; Kok, Frans J; Schouten, Evert G(2006)
BACKGROUND: People in transitional life stages, such as occupational retirement, are likely to gain weight and accumulate abdominal fat mass caused by changes in physical activity and diet. Hence, retirees are an important target group for weight gain prevention programmes, as described in the present paper. METHODS/DESIGN: A systematic and stepwise approach (Intervention Mapping) is used to develop a low-intensity energy balance intervention programme for recent retirees. This one-year, low-intensity multifaceted programme aims to prevent accumulation of abdominal fat mass and general weight gain by increasing awareness of energy balance and influencing related behaviours of participants' preference. These behaviours are physical activity, fibre intake, portion size and fat consumption. The effectiveness of the intervention programme is tested in a cluster randomised controlled trial. Measurements of anthropometry, physical activity, energy intake, and related psychosocial determinants are performed at baseline and repeated at 6 months for intermediate effect, at 12 months to evaluate short-term intervention effects and at 24 months to test the sustainability of the effects. DISCUSSION: This intervention programme is unique in its focus on retirees and energy balance. It aims at increasing awareness and takes into account personal preferences of the users by offering several options for behaviour change. Moreover, the intervention programme is evaluated at short-term and long-term and includes consecutive outcome measures (determinants, behaviour and body composition).
Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline A; Schellevis, Francois G; Westert, Gert P; Bos, Geertrudis A M van den(2006)
BACKGROUND: Comorbidity has been shown to intensify health care utilization and to increase medical care costs for patients with diabetes. However, most studies have been focused on one health care service, mainly hospital care, or limited their analyses to one additional comorbid disease, or the data were based on self-reported questionnaires instead of health care registration data. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects a broad spectrum of of comorbidities on the type and volume of medical health care utilization of patients with diabetes. METHODS: By linking general practice and hospital based registrations in the Netherlands, data on comorbidity and health care utilization of patients with diabetes (n = 7,499) were obtained. Comorbidity was defined as diabetes-related comorbiiabetes-related comorbidity. Multilevel regression analyses were applied to estimate the effects of comorbidity on health care utilization. RESULTS: Our results show that both diabetes-related and non diabetes-related comorbidity increase the use of medical care substantially in patients with diabetes. Having both diabeterelated and non diabetes-related comorbidity incrases the demand for health care even more. Differences in health care utilization patterns were observed between the comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Non diabetes-related comorbidity increases the health care demand as much as diabetes-related comorbidity. Current single-disease approach of integrated diabetes care should be extended with additional care modules, which must be generic and include multiple diseases in order to meet the complex health care demands of patients with diabetes in the future.
Schanke, Arne van; Venrooij, Gemma M C A L van; Jongsma, Marjan J; Banus, H Alexander; Mullenders, Leon H F; Kranen, Henk J van; Gruijl, Frank R de(2006-03-01)
Nevi and melanomas correlate to childhood and intermittent solar UV exposure, xeroderma pigmentosum patients run increased risk, and p16(Ink4a) expression is often lost in malignant progression. To ascertain the effect of these risk factors, pigmented hairless Ink4a/Arf-, Xpa- knockout mice were subjected to various combinations of neonatal [7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) or UVB exposure] and adult treatments (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or subacute daily UVB exposure or intermittent overexposure). Nevi occurred earliest, grew largest, and were most numerous in mice exposed to DMBA followed by intermittent UVB overexposure [effect of six minimal edemal doses (MED), 1 x /2 weeks > 4 MED 1 x /wk]. Neonatal UV exposure enhanced nevus induction but lost its effect after 200 days. The Xpa(-/-) mice proved exquisitely sensitive to UV-driven nevus induction, indicating the involvement of pyrimidine dimer DNA lesions, but Xpa(+/+) mice developed many more nevi (>40 per mouse) at high UV dosages not tolerated by Xpa(-/-) mice. Ink4a/Arf(-/-) mice developed most skin tumors faster, but surprisingly developed nevi slower than their heterozygous counterparts especially after neonatal UV exposure. Despite raising >1,600 nevi, only six melanomas arose in our experiments with Ink4a/Arf knockout mice (five of which in Xpa(+/+) mice at high UV dosages). In contrast to human nevi, these nevi lacked hotspot mutations in Braf or Ras genes, possibly explaining the lack of malignant progression in the Ink4a/Arf(-/-) mice. Hence, although our experiments did not effectively emulate human melanoma, they provided clear evidence that intermittent UV overexposure strongly stimulates and the Ink4a/Arf(-/-) genotype may actually impair nevus development.
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