• Failure to detect MERS-CoV RNA in urine of naturally infected dromedary camels.

      Farag, Elmoubasher A; Haagmans, Bart L; Al-Romaihi, Hamad; Mohran, Khaled; Haroun, Mohamed; El-Sayed, Ahmed M; Koopmans, Marion; AlHajri, Mohammed; Reusken, Chantal B E M (2019-01-01)
    • Fairmode: Update on current harmonisation initiatives

      Thunis P; Janssen S; Wesseling J; Tarrason L; Guevara M; Belis C; Pirovano (2018-06-06)
    • False hyperlactatemia in ethylene glycol poisoning.

      Fijen, Jan-Willem; Kemperman, Hans; Ververs, F F Tessa; Meulenbelt, Jan (2006-04-01)
    • Familiarity of general practitioners with Q fever decreases hospitalisation risk.

      Fanoy, E; Dijkstra, F; van der Hoek, W; Schneeberger, P; van de Kassteele, J; Rietveld, A (2018-05)
      Between 2007 and 2010, the Netherlands experienced large outbreaks of Q fever with over 4000 cases. There were unexplained geographical differences in hospitalisation rates of notified patients. We examined the extent of this geographic variation in Q fever hospitalisation and its potential association with general practitioner (GP) experience with Q fever.
    • Fast approximate computation of cervical cancer screening outcomes by a deterministic multiple-type HPV progression model.

      Vänskä, Simopekka; Bogaards, Johannes A; Auranen, Kari; Lehtinen, Matti; Berkhof, Johannes (2019-01-16)
      Cervical cancer arises differentially from infections with up to 14 high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, making model-based evaluations of cervical cancer screening strategies computationally heavy and structurally complex. Thus, with the high number of HPV types, microsimulation is typically used to investigate cervical cancer screening strategies. We developed a feasible deterministic model that integrates varying natural history of cervical cancer by the different high-risk HPV types with compressed mixture representations of the screened population, allowing for fast computation of screening interventions. To evaluate the method, we built a corresponding microsimulation model. The outcomes of the deterministic model were stable over different levels of compression and agreed with the microsimulation model for all disease states, screening outcomes, and levels of cancer incidence. The compression reduced the computation time more than 1000 fold when compared to microsimulation in a cohort of 1 million women. The compressed mixture representations enable the assessment of uncertainties surrounding the natural history of cervical cancer and screening decisions in a computationally undemanding way.
    • Fasting leptin and appetite responses induced by a 4-day 65%-energy-restricted diet.

      Mars, M; Graaf, C de; Groot, C P G M de; Rossum, Caroline T M van; Kok, F J (2006-01-01)
      OBJECTIVE: Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between serum leptin concentrations and subjective appetite. SUBJECTS: A total of 44 healthy adult men (aged: 43 +/- 5 years; BMI: 27.3 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2)). MEASUREMENTS: Fasting serum leptin concentrations and self-perceived appetite levels were measured during a 4-day diet containing 36% of the estimated energy requirements. Appetite levels were assessed with a 10-point Likert scale, reflecting hunger, fullness, desire to eat, prospective consumption and total appetite. RESULTS: After the 4-day energy deficit, fasting leptin concentrations decreased by 39.4% (95% CI: -43.6; -34.9%). This decline was associated with an increase in fasting hunger (r = -0.42; P < 0.01), desire to eat (r = -0.39; P < 0.05) and total appetite (r = -0.38; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the association between fasting leptin concentrations and fasting appetite levels became stronger during the energy restriction period (for total appetite: day 0 r = -0.15, P = 0.32; day 2 r = -0.31, P =< 0.05; day 4 r = -0.41, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The acute proportional reduction in fasting leptin after 4-day energy restriction is associated with an increase in self-perceived appetite. Additionally, the inverse association between proportional fasting leptin concentrations and self-perceived appetite response becomes stronger as energy restriction is prolonged. These findings suggest that leptin has an instrumental role in restoring energy balance in humans through the expression of appetite.
    • A fatal case of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with myositis ossificans traumatica.

      Vlasveld, I N; Scheper, H; Stalenhoef, J; Baas, J M; van Dissel, J (2017-07)
      Myositis ossificans traumatica is a rare disease associated with chronic wounds and fistulae. Chronic ulcers, fistulae and wounds can transform into squamous cell carcinoma, the so-called Marjolin's ulcer. We describe a rapid, progressive and fulminant course of a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma arising from a chronic wound in a patient with myositis ossificans traumatica.
    • Fatal diphtheria myocarditis in a 3-year-old girl-related to late availability and administration of antitoxin?

      Van Damme, Karlijn; Peeters, Natasja; Jorens, Philippe G; Boiy, Tine; Deplancke, Marjan; Audiens, Hilde; Wojciechowski, Marek; De Dooy, Jozef; Te Wierik, Margreet; Vlieghe, Erika (2017-09-29)
      Sporadic cases of diphtheria are very rare throughout Europe. A 3-year-old incompletely vaccinated girl was admitted with pharyngotonsillitis caused by diphtheria. On day 9 of her illness, renal and cardiac failure with a third-degree AV-block occurred. Unfortunately, she died within 36 h of admission to intensive care, despite pacemaker placement, the administration of antibiotics and diphtheria antitoxin. The delayed antitoxin administration 7 days after admission to hospital was related to a lack of availability and knowledge of its availability in Europe and this is likely to have contributed to the unfavourable outcome.
    • Fatalities, Cerebral Hemorrhage, and Severe Cardiovascular Toxicity After Exposure to the New Psychoactive Substance 4-Fluoroamphetamine: A Prospective Cohort Study.

      Hondebrink, Laura; Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen, Johanna J; Rietjens, Saskia J; Brunt, Tibor M; Venhuis, Bastiaan; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, Vidija; Smink, Beitske E; van Riel, Antoinette J H P; de Vries, Irma (2017-09-29)
      We study adverse health effects after use of the new psychoactive substance 4-fluoroamphetamine.
    • Fate modelling of nanoparticle releases in LCA: An integrative approach towards “USEtox4Nano”

      Salieri, Beatrice; Hischier, Roland; Quik, Joris T.K.; Jolliet, Olivier (2019-01)
    • Fc-Mediated Antibody Effector Functions During Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection and Disease.

      van Erp, Elisabeth A; Luytjes, Willem; Ferwerda, Gerben; van Kasteren, Puck B (2019-01-01)
      Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalization in infants under 1 year of age and there is currently no market-approved vaccine available. For protection against infection, young children mainly depend on their innate immune system and maternal antibodies. Traditionally, antibody-mediated protection against viral infections is thought to be mediated by direct binding of antibodies to viral particles, resulting in virus neutralization. However, in the case of RSV, virus neutralization titers do not provide an adequate correlate of protection. The current lack of understanding of the mechanisms by which antibodies can protect against RSV infection and disease or, alternatively, contribute to disease severity, hampers the design of safe and effective vaccines against this virus. Importantly, neutralization is only one of many mechanisms by which antibodies can interfere with viral infection. Antibodies consist of two structural regions: a variable fragment (Fab) that mediates antigen binding and a constant fragment (Fc) that mediates downstream effector functions via its interaction with Fc-receptors on (innate) immune cells or with C1q, the recognition molecule of the complement system. The interaction with Fc-receptors can lead to killing of virus-infected cells through a variety of immune effector mechanisms, including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Antibody-mediated complement activation may lead to complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). In addition, both Fc-receptor interactions and complement activation can exert a broad range of immunomodulatory functions. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of Fc-mediated antibody effector functions in both protection and pathogenesis for various infectious agents. In this review article, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on Fc-mediated antibody effector functions in the context of RSV infection, discuss their potential role in establishing the balance between protection and pathogenesis, and point out important gaps in our understanding of these processes. Furthermore, we elaborate on the regulation of these effector functions on both the cellular and humoral side. Finally, we discuss the implications of Fc-mediated antibody effector functions for the rational design of safe and effective vaccines and monoclonal antibody therapies against RSV.
    • Feasibility of Electronic Health Information and Surveillance System (eHISS) for disease symptom monitoring: A case of rural Ghana.

      Mohammed, Aliyu; Franke, Konstantin; Boakye Okyere, Portia; Brinkel, Johanna; Bonačić Marinovic, Axel; Kreuels, Benno; Krumkamp, Ralf; Fobil, Julius; May, Jürgen; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis (2018)
      The current surge of mobile phone use in many African countries creates the opportunity to provide caregivers with limited access to the health care system with vital health recommendations. At the same time such communication system can be utilised to collect tempero-spatial data on disease symptoms.
    • FFQ versus repeated 24-h recalls for estimating diet-related environmental impact.

      Mertens, Elly; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Feskens, Edith J M; Van't Veer, Pieter (2019-01-08)
      There is an increasing interest in estimating environmental impact of individuals' diets by using individual-level food consumption data. However, like assessment of nutrient intakes, these data are prone to substantial measurement errors dependent on the method of dietary assessment, and this often result in attenuation of associations. To investigate the performance of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for estimating the environmental impact of the diet as compared to independent 24-h recalls (24hR), and to study the association between environmental impact and dietary quality for the FFQ and 24hR. We analysed cross-sectional data from 1169 men and women, aged 20-76 years, who participated in the NQplus study, the Netherlands. They completed a 216-item FFQ and two replicates of web-based 24hR. Life cycle assessments of 207 food products were used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy and land use, summarised into an aggregated score, pReCiPe. Validity of the FFQ was evaluated against 24hRs using correlation coefficients and attenuation coefficients. Associations with dietary quality were based on Dutch Healthy Diet 15-index (DHD15-index) and Nutrient Rich Diet score (NRD9.3). For pReCiPe, correlation coefficient between FFQ and 24hR was 0.33 when adjusted for covariates age, gender and BMI, and increased to 0.76 when de-attenuated for within-subject variation in the 24hR. Energy-adjustment slightly reduced these correlations (r = 0.71 for residuals of observed values and 0.59 for residuals of density values). Covariate-adjusted attenuation coefficient for the FFQ was 0.56 (ʎ
    • Filet américain oorzaak van eerste landelijke uitbraak van Shigatoxine-producerende Escherichia coli O157-infecties

      Doorduyn, Y; Jager, C M de; Zwaluw, W K van der; Friesema, I H M; Heuvelink, A E; Boer, E de; Wannet, Wim J B; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van (RIVM, 2006-08-01)
      In September 2005, the first nationwide outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infections was observed. A total of 21 confirmed and 11 probable patients were reported, who fell ill between September 11 and October 10. Preliminary investigation by the local public health services revealed two possible risk factors: consumption of steak tartare and contact with other persons with gastroenteritis. The results of the subsequent case-control study suggested steak tartare as the most likely cause of the outbreak. Samples of steak tartare taken at a supermarket chain where most of the patients bought the product, tested negative for STEC O157. However, sampling took place 3 days after the date of symptom onset of the last outbreak case. Because 88% of the cases became ill within a two-week period and samples taken shortly afterwards tested negative, point source contamination of steak tartare was considered most plausible.
    • First case of severe pneumonic tularemia in an immunocompetent patient in the Netherlands.

      Sigaloff, K C E; Chung, P K; Koopmans, J; Notermans, D W; van Rijckevorsel, G G C; Koene, M; Sprengers, R W; Gooskens, J; Stalenhoef, J E (2017-09)
      Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by different subspecies of the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. We report the first case in the Netherlands of pneumonic tularemia caused by the F. tularensis subspecies holarctica after probable occupational inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Notification of cases of tularemia has been mandatory by law in the Netherlands since 1 November 2016.
    • First detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks from northern Italy.

      Ravagnan, Silvia; Tomassone, Laura; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Krawczyk, Aleksandra Iwona; Mastrorilli, Eleonora; Sprong, Hein; Milani, Adelaide; Rossi, Luca; Capelli, Gioia (2018-03-20)
      Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete transmitted by several ixodid tick species. It causes a relapsing fever in humans and is currently considered as an emerging pathogen. In Europe, B. miyamotoi seems to occur at low prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks but has a wide distribution. Here we report the first detection of B. miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in two independent studies conducted in 2016 in the north-eastern and north-western Alps, Italy.
    • The first isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from horses in Serbia.

      Klun, Ivana; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Villena, Isabelle; Mercier, Aurélien; Bobić, Branko; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Opsteegh, Marieke; Aubert, Dominique; Blaga, Radu; et al. (2017-04-04)
      Consumption of undercooked or insufficiently cured meat is a major risk factor for human infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Although horsemeat is typically consumed rare or undercooked, information on the risk of T. gondii from infected horse meat to humans is scarce. Here, we present the results of a study to determine the presence of T. gondii infection in slaughter horses in Serbia, and to attempt to isolate viable parasites.
    • First isolation of Trichinella britovi from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium.

      Schynts, F; Giessen, Joke van der; Tixhon, S; Pozio, E; Dorny, P; Borchgrave, J de (2006-01-30)
      Since 1992, when the European Union Council Directive requires that wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in EU for commercial purpose should be examined for Trichinella, the infection has not been detected in wild boars from Belgium, despite serological evidence of the presence of anti-Trichinella antibodies in wildlife and previous reports of Trichinella larvae in this host species. In November 2004, Trichinella larvae were detected in a wild boar hunted near Mettet, Namur province (Southern Belgium). Larvae were identified as Trichinella britovi by polymerase chain reaction methods. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella larvae from Belgium at the species level. The detection of T. britovi in wildlife in Belgium is consistent with findings of this parasite in other European countries and confirms the need to test game meat for Trichinella to prevent its transmission to humans.