• De macht en onmacht van richtlijnen

      Verheij TJM; Velden AW van der; Lubben M van der (2018-05-28)
    • Maintenance files for WARP

      Unknown author (2006-11-02)
    • Malaria in Eritrean migrants newly arrived in seven European countries, 2011 to 2016.

      Sondén, Klara; Rolling, Thierry; Wångdahl, Andreas; Ydring, Elsie; Vygen-Bonnet, Sabine; Kobbe, Robert; Douhan, Johan; Hammar, Ulf; Duijster, Janneke; de Gier, Brechje; Freedman, Joanne; Gysin, Nicole; Stark, Klaus; Stevens, Flora; Vestergaard, Lasse Skafte; Tegnell, Anders; Färnert, Anna (2019-01-01)
      Global migration has resulted in a large number of asylum applications in Europe. In 2014, clusters of
    • Malariameldingen in 2005: Evaluatie van de richtlijnen van het Landelijk Coördinatiecentrum Reizigersadvisering (LCR) voor malariaprofylaxe

      Sondera, G J B; Plas, Simone M van der (RIVM, 2006-08-01)
      In The Netherlands, malaria is a notifiable disease in group C since 1999: the laboratory where the patient tested positive has to report the test results, together with a few demographic data, to the National Center for Disease Control (CIb). Since January 2005, the National Coordination Center for Travelers Health Advice (LCR) added some questions to the voluntary part of these reports in order to obtain more insight in the prevalence of malaria in people who used prophylaxis according to the LCR guidelines, and to evaluate these guidelines. The goal of the LCR guidelines is to prevent malaria caused by P. falciparum. All reported cases with a disease onset date in 2005 were evaluated. In 2005, 288 cases of malaria were reported. Seventy-five (26%) malaria patients used chemoprophylaxis. In total, 32 (11%) contracted malaria despite the use of chemoprophylaxis according to the LCR guidelines. Eight of these cases concerned malaria caused by P. falciparum. Four of these had used second choice chemoprophylaxis, to which parasitic resistance is common. In the blood sample of one patient no mefloquine was detected. Of the other three, the thick smear or EDTA blood was not available for resistance tests. Most likely, all other cases had a delayed onset malaria, which cannot be prevented by the currently available chemoprophylaxis. Based on these data, we conclude that the LCR guidelines are still valid. It is advised that in cases of breakthrough malaria caused by P. falciparum blood samples are taken to determine chloroquine or mefloquine levels where applicable, and to save EDTA blood for molecular confirmation of the species and determination of resistant parasites.
    • Managing Innovations: A Study of the Implementation of Electronic Medical Records in Dutch Hospitals

      Koster, Ferry; Lambooij, Mattijs; Department of Sociology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Burgemeester Oudlaan 50, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Quality in Health Care and Health Economics, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, A. Van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3720 BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands (2018-01-10)
    • Mandated lowering of toxicants in cigarette smoke: a description of the World Health Organization TobReg proposal.

      Burns, D M; Dybing, E; Gray, N; Hecht, S; Anderson, C; Sanner, T; O'Connor, R; Djordjevic, M; Dresler, C; Hainaut, P; Jarvis, M; Opperhuizen, A; Straif, K (2008-04)
    • Mapping the Dutch SNOMED CT subset to Omaha System, NANDA International and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

      Kieft, R A M M; Vreeke, E M; de Groot, E M; de Graaf-Waar, H I; van Gool, C H; Koster, N; Ten Napel, H; Francke, A L; Delnoij, D M J (2018-03)
      Nurses register data in electronic health records, which can use various terminology and coding systems. The net result is that information cannot be exchanged and reused properly, for example when a patient is transferred from one care setting to another. A nursing subset of patient problems was therefore developed in the Netherlands, based on comparable and exchangeable terms that are used throughout the healthcare sector and elsewhere (semantic interoperability). The purpose of the current research is to develop a mapping between the subset of patient problems and three classifications in order to improve the exchangeability of data. Those classifications are the Omaha System, NANDA International, and ICF (the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health).
    • Maternal measles antibodies and their influence on all-cause mortality following measles vaccination: an alternative to measure very low maternal antibody levels.

      Smits, Gaby; Stabell Benn, Christine; Whittle, Hilton; van Binnendijk, Rob; Aaby, Peter; van der Klis, Fiona (2018-10-16)
      It was previously shown by hemagglutination inhibition that measles-vaccination in the presence of maternal measles antibodies was associated with reduced all-cause mortality. We confirmed this serological association using a multiplexed immunoassay as a sensitive alternative and estimated a threshold concentration (28.7 mIU/ml), that correlates with lower all-cause mortality (p=0.02).
    • Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Early Childhood and Development of Asthma and Rhinoconjunctivitis - a MeDALL Project.

      Thacher, Jesse D; Gehring, Ulrike; Gruzieva, Olena; Standl, Marie; Pershagen, Göran; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Berdel, Dietrich; Keller, Theresa; Koletzko, Sibylle; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kull, Inger; Lau, Susanne; Lehmann, Irina; Maier, Dieter; Schikowski, Tamara; Wahn, Ulrich; Wijga, Alet H; Heinrich, Joachim; Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep M; von Berg, Andrea; Melén, Erik; Smit, Henriette A; Keil, Thomas; Bergström, Anna (2018)
      The role of tobacco smoke exposure in the development and persistence of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis through childhood into adolescence is unclear.
    • Mathematical modelling: a tool for hospital infection control.

      Grundmann, Hajo; Hellriegel, B (2006-01-01)
      Health-care-associated infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens have become a menace in hospitals worldwide and infection control measures have lead to vastly different outcomes in different countries. During the past 6 years, a theoretical framework based on mathematical models has emerged that provides solid and testable hypotheses and opens the road to a quantitative assessment of the main obstructions that undermine current efforts to control the spread of health-care-associated infections in hospitals and communities. We aim to explain to a broader audience of professionals in health care, infection control, and health systems administration some of these models that can improve the understanding of the hidden dynamics of health-care-associated infections. We also appraise their usefulness and limitations as an innovative research and decision tool for control purposes.
    • MDR/XDR tuberculosis in Greece: predominance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes endemic in the Former Soviet Union countries.

      Ioannidis, P; van Soolingen, D; Mokrousov, I; Papaventsis, D; Karabela, S; Konstantinidou, E; Marinou, I; Nikolaou, S; Kanavaki, S; Mantadakis, E; Samonis, G; Anthony, R; Vogiatzakis, E (2017-12)
    • Measured Adiposity in Relation to Head and Neck Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

      Ward, Heather A; Wark, Petra A; Muller, David C; Steffen, Annika; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc J; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Mesrine, Sylvie; Brennan, Paul; Freisling, Heinz; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Panico, Salavatore; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ardanaz, Eva; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Laurell, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Westin, Ulla; Wallström, Peter; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Pearson, Clare; Boeing, Heiner; Riboli, Elio (2017-06)
      Background: Emerging evidence from cohort studies indicates that adiposity is associated with greater incidence of head and neck cancer. However, most studies have used self-reported anthropometry which is prone to error.Methods: Among 363,094 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC) with measured anthropometry, there were 837 incident cases of head and neck cancer. Head and neck cancer risk was examined in relation to body mass index (BMI) [lean: <22.5 kg/m2, normal weight (reference): 22.5-24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25-29.9 kg/m2, obese: ≥30 kg/m2], waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) using Cox proportional hazards models.Results: Among men, a BMI < 22.5 kg/m2 was associated with higher head and neck cancer risk [HR 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-2.12)]; BMI was not associated with head and neck cancer among women. WC and WHR were associated with greater risk of head and neck cancer among women (WC per 5 cm: HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.15; WHR per 0.1 unit: HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.38-1.93). After stratification by smoking status, the association for WHR was present only among smokers (Pinteraction = 0.004). Among men, WC and WHR were associated with head and neck cancer only upon additional adjustment for BMI (WC per 5 cm: HR 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.26; WHR per 0.1 unit: HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.21-1.65).Conclusions: Central adiposity, particularly among women, may have a stronger association with head and neck cancer risk than previously estimated.Impact: Strategies to reduce obesity may beneficially impact head and neck cancer incidence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 895-904. ©2017 AACR.
    • Measurement of antibodies to avian influenza virus A(H7N7) in humans by hemagglutination inhibition test.

      Meijer, Adam; Bosman, Arnold; Kamp, Esther E H M van de; Wilbrink, Berry; Du Ry van Beest Holle, Mirna; Koopmans, Marion P G (2006-03-01)
      During the epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N7) in 2003 in The Netherlands, RT-PCR and culture confirmed infection was detected in 89 persons who were ill. A modified hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test using horse erythrocytes and 2 hemagglutinating units of virus was applied to assess retrospectively the extent of human (subclinical) infection. Validation of the HI-test with sera from 34 RT-PCR and culture confirmed A(H7) infected persons and sera from 100 persons from a human influenza vaccine trial in autumn 2002 showed that this HI-test had a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 100% when using a cut-off titer of > or =10. Using this cut-off value, A(H7) specific antibodies were detected in 49% of 508 persons exposed to poultry and in 64% of 63 persons exposed to A(H7) infected persons. Correlation of seropositivity with the occurrence of eye symptoms in exposed persons who had not received antiviral prophylaxis and of reduced seropositivity with taking antiviral prophylaxis provided further evidence that the A(H7) HI antibody titers were real. In conclusion, by applying an HI-test using horse erythrocytes human antibodies against the avian A(H7N7) virus were detected with high sensitivity and specificity in an unexpectedly high proportion of exposed persons.
    • Measurement of informal care: an empirical study into the valid measurement of time spent on informal caregiving.

      Berg, Bernard van den; Spauwen, Pol (2006-05-01)
      The incorporation of informal care into economic evaluations of health care is troublesome. The debate focuses on the valuation of time spent on informal caregiving, while time measurement, a related and may be even a more important issue, tends to be neglected. Valid time measurement is a necessary condition for the valuation of informal care. In this paper, two methods of time measurement are compared and evaluated: the diary, which is considered the gold standard, and the recall method, which is applied more often. The main objective of this comparison is to explore the validity of the measurement of time spent on providing informal care. In addition, this paper gives empirical evidence regarding the measurement of joint production and the separation between 'normal' housework and additional housework due to the care demands of the care recipients. Finally, the test-retest stability for the recall method is assessed. A total of 199 persons giving informal care to a heterogeneous population of care recipients completed the diary and the recall questionnaire. Corrected for joint production, informal caregivers spent almost 5.8 h a day on providing informal care. If one assumes that respondents take into account joint production when completing the recall questionnaire, the recall method is a valid instrument to measure time spent on providing informal care compared to the diary. Otherwise, the recall method is likely to overestimate the time spent on providing informal care. Moreover, the recall method proves to be unstable over time. This could be due to learning effects from completing a diary.
    • Measuring atmospheric ammonia with remote sensing campaign: Part 1 – Characterisation of vertical ammonia concentration profile in the centre of The Netherlands

      Dammers, E.; Schaap, M.; Haaima, M.; Palm, M.; Wichink Kruit, R.J.; Volten, H.; Hensen, A.; Swart, D.; Erisman, J.W. (2017-11)
    • Measuring tuberculosis transmission in low-incidence countries.

      de Vries, Gerard; van Dissel, Jaap; van Soolingen, Dick (2018-02-01)
    • Meat intake and risk of stomach and esophageal adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

      González, Carlos Alberto; Jakszyn, Paula; Pera, Guillem; Agudo, Antonio; Bingham, Sheila A; Palli, Domenico; Ferrari, Pietro; Boeing, Heiner; Giudice, Giuseppe del; Plebani, Mario; Carneiro, Fátima; Nesi, Gabriella; Berrino, Franco; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Göran; Simán, Henrik; Nyrén, Olof; Hallmans, Göran; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro Iraeta, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen A; Quirós, José Ramón; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Day, Nicholas E; Linseisen, Jakob; Nagel, Gabriele; Bergmann, Manuela M; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Majken K; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Peeters, Petra H M; Numans, Mattijs E; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Roukos, Dimitrios; Lund, Eiliv; Hemon, Bertrand; Kaaks, Rudolf; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio (2006-03-01)
      BACKGROUND: Dietary factors are thought to have an important role in gastric and esophageal carcinogenesis, but evidence from cohort studies for such a role is lacking. We examined the risks of gastric cancer and esophageal adenocarcinoma associated with meat consumption within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: A total of 521,457 men and women aged 35-70 years in 10 European countries participated in the EPIC cohort. Dietary and lifestyle information was collected at recruitment. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine associations between meat intake and risks of cardia and gastric non-cardia cancers and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Data from a calibration substudy were used to correct hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diet measurement errors. In a nested case-control study, we examined interactions between Helicobacter pylori infection status (i.e., plasma H. pylori antibodies) and meat intakes. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 6.5 years, 330 gastric adenocarcinoma and 65 esophageal adenocarcinomas were diagnosed. Gastric non-cardia cancer risk was statistically significantly associated with intakes of total meat (calibrated HR per 100-g/day increase = 3.52; 95% CI = 1.96 to 6.34), red meat (calibrated HR per 50-g/day increase = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.88), and processed meat (calibrated HR per 50-g/day increase = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.43 to 4.21). The association between the risk of gastric non-cardia cancer and total meat intake was especially large in H. pylori-infected subjects (odds ratio per 100-g/day increase = 5.32; 95% CI = 2.10 to 13.4). Intakes of total, red, or processed meat were not associated with the risk of gastric cardia cancer. A positive but non-statistically significant association was observed between esophageal adenocarcinoma cancer risk and total and processed meat intake in the calibrated model. In this study population, the absolute risk of development of gastric adenocarcinoma within 10 years for a study subject aged 60 years was 0.26% for the lowest quartile of total meat intake and 0.33% for the highest quartile of total meat intake. CONCLUSION: Total, red, and processed meat intakes were associated with an increased risk of gastric non-cardia cancer, especially in H. pylori antibody-positive subjects, but not with cardia gastric cancer.
    • Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents.

      van Duijkeren, Engeline; Schink, Anne-Kathrin; Roberts, Marilyn C; Wang, Yang; Schwarz, Stefan (2018-01)
      During the past decades resistance to virtually all antimicrobial agents has been observed in bacteria of animal origin. This chapter describes in detail the mechanisms so far encountered for the various classes of antimicrobial agents. The main mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation by either disintegration or chemical modification of antimicrobial agents, reduced intracellular accumulation by either decreased influx or increased efflux of antimicrobial agents, and modifications at the cellular target sites (i.e., mutational changes, chemical modification, protection, or even replacement of the target sites). Often several mechanisms interact to enhance bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. This is a completely revised version of the corresponding chapter in the book Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin published in 2006. New sections have been added for oxazolidinones, polypeptides, mupirocin, ansamycins, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, and streptomycins, and the chapters for the remaining classes of antimicrobial agents have been completely updated to cover the advances in knowledge gained since 2006.