• Tall height and obesity are associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer: results from the EPIC cohort study.

      Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Appleby, Paul N; Pischon, Tobias; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Kritikou, Maria; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Agudo, Antonio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Quirós, J Ramón; Stattin, Pär; Häggström, Christel; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Schmidt, Julie A; Gunter, Marc; Freisling, Heinz; Aune, Dagfinn; Ward, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C (2017-07-13)
      The relationship between body size and prostate cancer risk, and in particular risk by tumour characteristics, is not clear because most studies have not differentiated between high-grade or advanced stage tumours, but rather have assessed risk with a combined category of aggressive disease. We investigated the association of height and adiposity with incidence of and death from prostate cancer in 141,896 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
    • Tannic acid promotes ion release of copper oxide nanoparticles: Impacts from solution pH change and complexation reactions.

      Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yang; Pan, Bo; Gao, Guoqian; Liu, Ying; Liu, Siqian; Liang, Ni; Zhou, Dandan; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2017-12-15)
      The increasing number of applications in which copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used, may lead to potential release of CuO NPs into the environment. However, the impact of natural organic matters on the behavior and fate of CuO NPs in aquatic media is still largely unknown. In this study, the dissolution and aggregation of CuO NPs under the exposure of tannic acid (TA) were monitored over a period of 72 h, with a focus on assessing the contributions of solution pH changes and complexation reactions. Results showed that the total amount of Cu2+released from CuO NPs increased in the presence of TA especially at the highest TA concentration of 73.5 μmol/L. Although TA was observed to wrap around the CuO NPs, the aggregation of CuO NPs was not strongly influenced by TA and by the solution pH as investigated in this study. The kinetics of Cu2+release were fitted using the modified pseudo second-order model and the rate of dissolution was assessed to be highest at TA = 14.7 μmol/L. At pH = 4, the increased H+concentration was responsible for increased Cu2+release, whereas the complexation reaction between Cu2+and TA dominated at pH = 7. These findings suggested that the effects of TA on the dissolution of CuO NPs were a combination of solution pH change and complexation reaction, the relative fractions of which also depended on the solution pH. Additionally, the percentage of Cu2+released from the CuO NPs was found to increase upon decreasing concentrations of CuO NPs. Our work helps to further understand how and to which extent natural organic matters affect the behavior and fate of CuO NPs.
    • Tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide yield of UK cigarettes and the risk of non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

      van Osch, Frits H M; Pauwels, Charlotte G G M; Jochems, Sylvia H J; Fayokun, Ranti; James, Nicholas D; Wallace, D Michael A; Cheng, Kar-Keung; Bryan, Richard T; van Schooten, Frederik J; Zeegers, Maurice P (2017-07-04)
      Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer (BC); however, the impact of cigarette content remains unclear. This study aims to investigate tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide (TNCO) yields of different filtered cigarettes in relation to BC risk. From the Bladder Cancer Prognosis Programme 575 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) cases, 139 muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) cases and 130 BC-free controls with retrospective data on smoking behaviour and cigarette brand were identified. Independently measured TNCO yields of cigarettes sold in the UK were obtained through the UK Department of Health and merged with the Bladder Cancer Prognosis Programme dataset to estimate the daily intake of TNCO. BC risk increased by TNCO intake category for NMIBC cases (P <0.050 in all multivariate models), but only for the daily intake of tar for MIBC cases (P=0.046) in multivariate models. No difference in risk was observed between smokers of low-tar/low-nicotine and high-tar/high-nicotine cigarettes compared with never smokers, either for NMIBC (P=0.544) or MIBC (P=0.449). High daily intake of TNCO additionally increases the risk of both NMIBC and MIBC compared with low daily intake. However, as there is no difference in BC risk between low-tar/low-nicotine and high-tar/high-nicotine cigarette smokers, it remains unclear whether smoking behaviour or TNCO yield of cigarettes explains this association.
    • Targeted outreach hepatitis B vaccination program in high-risk adults: The fundamental challenge of the last mile.

      Mangen, M-J J; Stibbe, H; Urbanus, A; Siedenburg, E C; Waldhober, Q; de Wit, G A; van Steenbergen, J E (2017-05-31)
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the on-going decentralised targeted hepatitis B vaccination program for behavioural high-risk groups operated by regional public health services in the Netherlands since 1-November-2002. Target groups for free vaccination are men having sex with men (MSM), commercial sex workers (CSW) and hard drug users (HDU). Heterosexuals with a high partner change rate (HRP) were included until 1-November-2007.
    • Tekenencefalitis, een nieuwe ziekte in Nederland?

      Brandwagt D; Spit S; Sprong H; Hofhuis A; Stroo CJ; Gassner F; Fanoy E (2017-04-24)
    • Tekenencefalitis: een lastige diagnose

      Hira V; Reimerink JHJ (2017-07)
    • Temporal and spatial analysis of psittacosis in association with poultry farming in the Netherlands, 2000-2015.

      Hogerwerf, Lenny; Holstege, Manon M C; Benincà, Elisa; Dijkstra, Frederika; van der Hoek, Wim (2017-07-26)
      Human psittacosis is a highly under diagnosed zoonotic disease, commonly linked to psittacine birds. Psittacosis in birds, also known as avian chlamydiosis, is endemic in poultry, but the risk for people living close to poultry farms is unknown. Therefore, our study aimed to explore the temporal and spatial patterns of human psittacosis infections and identify possible associations with poultry farming in the Netherlands.
    • Temporal associations between national outbreaks of meningococcal serogroup W and C disease in the Netherlands and England: an observational cohort study.

      Knol, Mirjam J; Hahné, Susan J M; Lucidarme, Jay; Campbell, Helen; de Melker, Hester E; Gray, Stephen J; Borrow, Ray; Ladhani, Shamez N; Ramsay, Mary E; van der Ende, Arie (2017-10)
      Since 2009, the incidence of meningococcal serogroup W disease has increased rapidly in the UK because of a single strain (the so-called original UK strain) belonging to the hypervirulent sequence type-11 clonal complex (cc11), with a variant outbreak strain (the so-called 2013 strain) emerging in 2013. Subsequently, the Netherlands has had an increase in the incidence of meningococcal serogroup W disease. We assessed the temporal and phylogenetic associations between the serogroup W outbreaks in the Netherlands and England, and the historical serogroup C outbreaks in both countries.
    • Tetanus Toxoid carrier protein induced T-helper cell responses upon vaccination of middle-aged adults.

      van der Heiden, Marieke; Duizendstra, Aafke; Berbers, Guy A M; Boots, Annemieke M H; Buisman, Anne-Marie (2017-10-09)
      Vaccines frequently induce suboptimal immune responses in the elderly, due to immunological ageing. Timely vaccination may be a strategy to overcome this problem, which classifies middle-aged adults asan interesting target group for future vaccine interventions. However, the immunological fitness of the middle-aged population is ill-defined. It is currently unknown whether effective T-cell help towards B-cells is initiated by conjugate-carrier vaccines at middle-age.
    • The association between the NAT2 genetic polymorphisms and risk of DILI during anti-TB treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Zhang, Min; Wang, Shuqiang; Wilffert, Bob; Tong, Rongsheng; van Soolingen, Dick; van den Hof, Susan; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem; Department of Pharmacy; Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital; Chengdu China; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology; Groningen The Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology; Groningen The Netherlands; Department of Pharmacy; Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital; Chengdu China; Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Microbiology; Radboud University Medical Centre; Nijmegen The Netherlands; KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation; The Hague The Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology; Groningen The Netherlands (2018-07-26)
    • The crystal structure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles influences immune activity in vitro and in vivo

      Vandebriel, Rob J.; Vermeulen, Jolanda P.; van Engelen, Laurens B.; de Jong, Britt; Verhagen, Lisa M.; de la Fonteyne-Blankestijn, Liset J.; Hoonakker, Marieke E.; de Jong, Wim H. (2018-01-30)
    • The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Continuum of Care in European Union Countries in 2013: Data and Challenges

      Gourlay, Annabelle; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia; Axelsson, Maria; Costagliola, Dominique; Cowan, Susan; Croxford, Sara; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; del Amo, Julia; Delpech, Valerie; Díaz, Asunción; Girardi, Enrico; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Hernando, Victoria; Jose, Sophie; Leierer, Gisela; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Obel, Niels; Op de Coul, Eline; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Sasse, André; Schmid, Daniela; Sonnerborg, Anders; Spina, Alexander; Suligoi, Barbara; Supervie, Virginie; Touloumi, Giota; Van Beckhoven, Dominique; van Sighem, Ard; Vourli, Georgia; Zangerle, Robert; Porter, Kholoud (2017-06-15)
    • Therapie van parasitaire infecties in Nederland.

      Stelma F; Hellemond J van; Genderen P van; Gool T van; Hekker T; Kortbeek T; Mank T; Mulder B; Visser L; Sauerwein R (2017-03)
    • Thoron exposure in Dutch dwellings - An overview.

      de With, G; Smetsers, R C G M; Slaper, H; de Jong, P (2018-01-04)
      In the Netherlands considerable attention has been given to the exposure from thoron progeny in dwellings. For this purpose a nationwide survey on the thoron exhalation and thoron progeny concentration has been completed in 2015. Furthermore, extensive laboratory studies have been performed to measure activity concentrations and thoron exhalation rates from regular Dutch building materials. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if the findings from both field experiments and laboratory results are consistent. For this reason measured properties of building materials and surface barriers, in-situ measurements on air ventilation and thoron(progeny) in dwellings as well as advanced computational modelling on indoor air and aerosol behaviour have been used. The results demonstrate that median and mean thoron progeny concentrations of 0.53 and 0.64 Bq·m-3 found in the survey are comparable with the mean concentration of 0.57 Bq·m-3 obtained from laboratory testing and calculation. Furthermore, upper thoron progeny concentrations from the survey and the calculations are with respectively 13 and 14 Bq·m-3 also in good agreement. Such elevated concentrations lead to an effective doses of around 4 mSv per year. The study also includes worst-case scenarios on the application of surface materials high on 232Th, and the expected reduction in thoron progeny when using mainstream mitigation measures.
    • Threats to timely sharing of pathogen sequence data.

      Dos S Ribeiro, Carolina; Koopmans, Marion P; Haringhuizen, George B (2018)
    • Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Ticks and Roe Deer, the Netherlands.

      Jahfari, Setareh; de Vries, Ankje; Rijks, Jolianne M; Van Gucht, Steven; Vennema, Harry; Sprong, Hein; Rockx, Barry (2017-06)
      We report the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in the Netherlands. Serologic screening of roe deer found TBEV-neutralizing antibodies with a seroprevalence of 2%, and TBEV RNA was detected in 2 ticks from the same location. Enhanced surveillance and awareness among medical professionals has led to the identification of autochthonous cases.
    • Tick-borne pathogens in Finland: comparison of Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus in sympatric and parapatric areas.

      Laaksonen, Maija; Klemola, Tero; Feuth, Eeva; Sormunen, Jani J; Puisto, Anna; Mäkelä, Satu; Penttinen, Ritva; Ruohomäki, Kai; Hänninen, Jari; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Sprong, Hein; Hytönen, Jukka; Vesterinen, Eero J (2018-10-24)
      Almost 3500 tick samples, originally collected via a nationwide citizen science campaign in 2015, were screened to reveal the prevalence and distribution of a wide spectrum of established and putative tick-borne pathogens vectored by Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus in Finland. The unique geographical distribution of these two tick species in Finland allowed us to compare pathogen occurrence between an I. ricinus-dominated area (southern Finland), an I. persulcatus-dominated area (northern Finland), and a sympatric area (central Finland).
    • Time lag between immigration and tuberculosis rates in immigrants in the Netherlands: a time-series analysis.

      van Aart, C; Boshuizen, H; Dekkers, A; Korthals Altes, H (2017-05-01)
      In low-incidence countries, most tuberculosis (TB) cases are foreign-born. We explored the temporal relationship between immigration and TB in first-generation immigrants between 1995 and 2012 to assess whether immigration can be a predictor for TB in immigrants from high-incidence countries.
    • Time to acquire and lose carriership of ESBL/pAmpC producing E. coli in humans in the Netherlands.

      Teunis, Peter F M; Evers, Eric G; Hengeveld, Paul D; Dierikx, Cindy M; Wielders, Cornelia C C H; van Duijkeren, Engeline (2018)
      A subset of the study population from a cross-sectional study of carriership of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli (ESBL-E) in the general population was followed up by five successive samples over an approximate half year period, leading to six samples in 333 persons. Fecal samples were cultured and analyzed for the presence of E. coli types as characterized by MLST, and ESBL/pAmpC genes were analysed by PCR and sequencing. The study included 255 persons who had a negative first sample, to allow observations of acquiring carriership of ESBL-E. Any individual record thus consisted of a series of snapshots of episodes of presence and absence of ESBL-E carriage. A survival model was built to estimate times to acquire or lose carriership, allowing for any combination of ESBL/pAmpC gene and E. coli MLST type. In carriers, the mean time to lose carriership was 1.1 (95% range 0.8-1.6) years. The estimated mean time to acquire carriership was 3.0 (95% range 1.6-6.3) years. Analysis of these times by ESBL/pAmpC gene found substantial variation among resistance genes both in persistence of carriership and in rates of acquiring carriership: blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-27 and blaSHV-12 were easily acquired, but blaCTX-M-1 and blaSHV-12 were also easily lost, while blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-27 and blaCMY-2 were more likely to persist. When in addition bacterial host types were included, some combinations appeared more persistent than others (blaCTX-M-1 in ST10 and ST58; blaCTX-M-14, blaCMY-2, and blaSHV-12 in ST69), or were acquired with higher frequency (blaCTX-M-14 in ST38, ST69, and ST131; blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-27 in ST131; blaSHV-12 in ST69). The relatively short duration of carriership means that when an intervention drastically reduces the exposure of humans to ESBL-E, the prevalence will be halved in 0.66 years. The observed differences between carriage rates of ESBL/pAmpC genes and E. coli strains need further investigation.