Browsing Miscellaneous by Subjects
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Adherence to the WCRF/AICR Dietary Recommendations for Cancer Prevention and Risk of Cancer in Elderly from Europe and the United States: A Meta-Analysis within the CHANCES Project.(2017)It is unknown whether dietary recommendations for cancer prevention are applicable to the elderly. We analyzed WCRF/AICR recommendations in cohorts of European and U.S. adults ages 60 years and above.
Alcoholic beverage preference and diabetes incidence across Europe: the Consortium on Health and Ageing Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project.(2017-05)It is unknown if wine, beer and spirit intake lead to a similar association with diabetes. We studied the association between alcoholic beverage preference and type 2 diabetes incidence in persons who reported to consume alcohol.
Dietary restriction but not angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade improves DNA damage-related vasodilator dysfunction in rapidly aging Ercc1Δ/- mice.(2017-08-01)DNA damage is an important contributor to endothelial dysfunction and age-related vascular disease. Recently, we demonstrated in a DNA repair-deficient, prematurely aging mouse model (Ercc1Δ/- mice) that dietary restriction (DR) strongly increases life- and health span, including ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, by preserving genomic integrity. In this mouse mutant displaying prominent accelerated, age-dependent endothelial dysfunction we investigated the signaling pathways involved in improved endothelium-mediated vasodilation by DR, and explore the potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ercc1Δ/- mice showed increased blood pressure and decreased aortic relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh) in organ bath experiments. Nitric oxide (NO) signaling and phospho-Ser1177-eNOS were compromised in Ercc1Δ/- DR improved relaxations by increasing prostaglandin-mediated responses. Increase of cyclo-oxygenase 2 and decrease of phosphodiesterase 4B were identified as potential mechanisms. DR also prevented loss of NO signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells and normalized angiotensin II (Ang II) vasoconstrictions, which were increased in Ercc1Δ/- mice. Ercc1Δ/- mutants showed a loss of Ang II type 2 receptor-mediated counter-regulation of Ang II type 1 receptor-induced vasoconstrictions. Chronic losartan treatment effectively decreased blood pressure, but did not improve endothelium-dependent relaxations. This result might relate to the aging-associated loss of treatment efficacy of RAS blockade with respect to endothelial function improvement. In summary, DR effectively prevents endothelium-dependent vasodilator dysfunction by augmenting prostaglandin-mediated responses, whereas chronic Ang II type 1 receptor blockade is ineffective.
Gender and Educational Differences in the Association between Lifestyle and Cognitive Decline over 10 Years: The Doetinchem Cohort Study.(2018-11-28)Several modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline have been identified, but whether differences by gender and educational level exist is unclear. The present study aims to clarify this by prospectively investigating the relationship between health- and lifestyle factors and cognitive functioning in different subgroups defined by gender and educational level. 2,347 cognitive healthy individuals (mean age = 54.8, SD = 6.8, range: 41-71; 51.8% female; 26.2% low education) from the Doetinchem Cohort Study were examined for cognitive function at baseline, and at 5- and 10-year follow-up. Health- and lifestyle factors were captured by a poly-environmental risk score labelled 'LIfestyle for BRAin Health' (LIBRA). This score consists of 12 modifiable risk and protective factors for cognitive decline and dementia, with higher scores indicating greater risk (range: -2.7 to +12.7). Heterogeneity in associations between LIBRA and decline in verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and mental speed between males and females and individuals with different levels of education were assessed in linear mixed models. Overall, higher LIBRA scores predicted faster decline in verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and mental speed over 10 years. Higher LIBRA scores were further associated with increased risk for incident cognitive impairment (one-point increase in LIBRA: HR = 1.09, 1.04-1.14, p = 0.001). In general, these effects were similar across gender and educational level.