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A new extraction procedure to abate the burden of non-extractable antibiotic residues in manure.Through agricultural soil fertilization using organic manure, antibiotic residues can accumulate in the environment. In order to assess the risks of environmental pollution by veterinary drugs, monitoring of manure for antibiotic residues is necessary. As manure is a complex matrix, extraction of antibiotics proved to be challenging. In this study, 24 extraction solvents were assessed for the extraction of residues from manure representing ten antibiotics from the antibiotic classes tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides, lincosamides and sulfonamides. Especially for the tetracyclines and quinolones the extraction solvent selection is critical, due to high fractions of non-extractable residues especially when using aqueous solvents (62-77% and 90-95% respectively when using milli-Q water). In contrast, sulfonamides can effectively be extracted with aqueous solvents. Overall, 0.125% trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile in combination with McIlvain-EDTA buffer proved to be the most effective extraction solvent. A longitudinal study pointed out that most antibiotics bind to solid manure particles instantaneously after addition. Trimethoprim is an exception, but because by using the optimal extraction solvent, the optimum fraction of bound residues is desorbed, this does not hamper quantitative analysis when using spiked manure quality control samples. Based on these new insights, the current in-house multi-residue LC-MS/MS method for manure analysis, containing 48 antibiotics, was revised, additionally validated and applied to 34 incurred manure samples.
Rate constants of hydroxyl radicals reaction with different dissociation species of fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides: Combined experimental and QSAR studies.Hydroxyl radicals (·OH) initiated degradation is an important process governing fate of aquatic organic micropollutants (OMPs). However, rate constants for aqueous reaction of OMPs with ·OH (kOH) are available only for a limited number of OMPs, which complicates fate assessment of OMPs. Furthermore, molecular structures of many OMPs contain ionizable groups, and the OMPs may dissociate into different anionic/cationic species with different reactivity towards ·OH. Therefore, it is of importance to determine kOH of ionizable OMPs, and to develop quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting kOH of OMPs at different ionization forms. Herein kOH values of 9 fluoroquinolones (FQs) and 11 sulfonamides (SAs) at 3 dissociation forms (FQ±/FQ+/FQ-, SA0/SA+/SA-) were determined by competition kinetics experiments. A QSAR model using theoretical molecular structural descriptors was subsequently developed. The QSAR model successfully corroborated previous experimental results, exhibited good statistical performance, and is capable to predict kOH for FQs and SAs with different dissociation forms at environmentally relevant pH conditions. As organic ions have rarely been included in previous QSAR studies, the newly developed model that covers both neutral molecules and ions is of significance for future QSAR development as well as fate assessment of ionizable OMPs.