Browsing Miscellaneous by Subjects
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A Deliberate Choice? Exploring the Decision to Switch from Cigarettes to E-Cigarettes.E-cigarettes are increasingly popular among both cigarette smokers and non-users. Although smoking cessation yields the most individual and population health benefits, switching to exclusive e-cigarette use offers some individual health benefits for cigarette smokers. However, e-cigarette use is not harmless, and its use among non-cigarette smokers should be prevented. Our study aims to explore the decision-making process about e-cigarettes among an e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and non-users. We conducted 12 semi-structured focus group interviews with e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and non-users. We performed a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts. First, knowledge reported by e-cigarette users was mainly based on other users' experiences. Second, cigarette smokers and non-users were more negative towards e-cigarettes than e-cigarette users. Third, e-cigarette users considered switching from cigarette smoking to e-cigarette use by deliberating relevant information, and weighing up the benefits and disadvantages of e-cigarette use versus smoking. Additionally, important factors in the decision-making process were a perception of risks and benefits of e-cigarettes compared to cigarettes, a supportive social environment about e-cigarette use, and trust in information offered about the risks and benefits of e-cigarettes. Our findings provide insight into what we can learn from the conscious decision-making process of e-cigarette users who switched from cigarettes to e-cigarettes. This information can be considered to develop targeted communications strategies to stimulate a conscious decision-making process, these may highlight benefits of switching to e-cigarettes for cigarette smokers, discussing the risks of smoking, and correcting misperceptions about the perceived risks and benefits of e-cigarette use.
What benefits and harms are important for a decision about cervical screening? A study of the perspective of different subgroups of women.Background: In cervical screening programs, women typically receive information leaflets to support their decision about participation. However, these leaflets are often based on what experts consider important benefits and harms of screening and not what women themselves consider important to know. Objective: To identify which benefits and harms women consider important for making a decision about cervical screening. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants: Women from the Dutch target group of cervical screening (N=248; 30-60 years), recruited through an online access panel. Main variables studied: Perceived importance of different benefits and harms of cervical screening, assessed through two rating items ("How important is the information about [this harm/benefit] for your decision?" and "For me it is a [benefit/harm] that participating in the screening program leads to [the benefit/harm]"), and one ranking item ("Rank the information according to their importance for your own choice"). Results: Women overall considered the benefits of cervical screening more important than the harms or disadvantages. The most important harm according to women was the chance of false positive results (M=4.88; SD=1.75). Differences between those with lower and higher numeracy/health literacy were found regarding several aspects, e.g. for the chance of false positive results, the chance of false negative results, the chance of overtreatment. Discussion and conclusion: The results suggest that leaflets could include more explicit information about false positive results.